Education in Pakistan has failed to Achieve Efficient Human Resource


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Iqra Ali has attempted this essay on the given pattern, which Sir Syed Kazim Ali teaches his students, who have consistently been qualifying their CSS and PMS essays. The essay is uploaded to help other competitive aspirants learn and practice how to write a comprehensive outline; how to write bullets in an outline; how to write the introductory paragraph; how to connect sentences and paragraphs; how to write a topic sentence; how to put evidence within the paragraphs.


1- Introduction 

Education plays a vital role in the advancement of a country through the development of efficient human resources. However, Pakistan’s weak, politicized, and non-unified education system has failed to produce skilled human resources, leading the state to the predicament of socio-economic declivity. Therefore, education indicators must be raised to build skilled youth and strengthen the country’s position in international politics.

2- Debunking the Terms Education and Human Resource
3- The Importance of Education in the Development of Human Resource
4- How has Pakistan’s Education System Failed in the Formation of Efficient Human Resources?

  • ✓ Lack of quality techno-vocational institutes, compromising the employment and economic output of the country
    Case in Point: According to the Planning Commission of Pakistan, less than six per cent of the youth population acquires any technical skills, among which only 2 per cent practically implement it 
  • ✓ Non-uniform and Un-directional Education trajectory leading to extremism and terrorism
    Case in Point: A Clear difference between students’ attitudes from the public educational institutions, Madaris and the few private elite institutions
  • ✓ Defective and Irrelevant curricula limit the innovative minds of the country’s youth
    Case in Point: Lack of practical knowledge due to cram culture
  • ✓ Less scientific development of the education sector due to budgetary constraints reducing the country’s overall human capital index
    Case in Point: According to the International Crisis Group, Pakistan is amongst the 12 countries in the world that spent less than 2 per cent of their GDP on the education sector
  • ✓ The absence of efficient research culture hinders the socioeconomic problem-solving approach
    Case in Point: According to the International Association of Universities, Pakistan constitutes only 0.49 per cent of the world’s total standardized research documents.
  • ✓ Lack of visionary educational policies due to a shortage of political will promoting lawlessness, corruption, and the governance crisis in the country
    Case in Point: Even after the adoption of more than 25 educational policies, still the education system is badly failing to produce efficient human resources
  • ✓ Teachers’ naivety to modern methodologies due to the dearth of training programs resulted in the production of archaic human resource
    Case in Point: According to a UNESCO report, no proper training standards in the available in the training institutions, particularly in remote parts of Punjab, Sindh and Baluchistan
  • ✓ Negligence of moral development in the education sector promotes intolerance and polarization among the young masses
    Case in Point: Karimullah, HOD of the sociology department- at the University of Peshawar, depicts the education system as a source of ongoing deep polarization in the country.

5- What Reforms in Pakistan’s Education System can produce efficient Human Resources?

  •  To provide result-driven technical and vocational education in rural and urban areas.
  •  To Increase public investment in the education sector.
  •  To encourage research work in universities through economic and technological incentives.
  •  To ensure Public-private partnership, i.e., the business community, NGO and civil society with the government to improve the quality and uniformity of education
  •  To provide solid political will on policy implementation and less interference of politics in the education sector
  •  To enhance the quality of teaching through the frequent teacher training program
  •  To Introduce updated and relevant curricula
  •  To focus on the moral development of the young generation from the primary level of education

6- Critical Analysis
7- Conclusion

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Education is the road through which a country’s youth travels to uplift its social, economic and political status. However, if the road is bumpy, a nation cannot progress as its constructors stray immediately after initiating their journey. Thus, education is a prerequisite for creating a sense of responsibility among the people, realizing their duties and rights, and enhancing their general consciousness regarding their national and international role in the country’s socio-economic prosperity. Nonetheless, Pakistan has a weak, polarized, and non-unified education system that has failed to develop efficient human resources. According to the World Bank, the literacy rate of Pakistan in 2021 has been 62.3 per cent. Notwithstanding, the country has scored a disappointing 0.39 out of 1 on the Human Capital Index. It is because there is a dearth of techno-vocational institutions, un-polarized education trajectory, updated and relevant curricula, trained teaching staff, and moral development in the educational institutions of Pakistan. As a result, the state’s youth has failed to develop innovative mindsets, contribute the economic upliftment, and raise their well-being. Moreover, intolerance, extremism, and terrorism have also been aggravated in society. Although multiple educational policies have been designed to promote Pakistan’s education standards, none have been successfully implemented to help develop efficient human resources. Therefore, it is high time the indicators mentioned above of the education system must be worked upon so that the young generation of the land of the pure can make it a better place to survive and progress. The essay deals with the situational analysis of the education system of Pakistan in the production of efficient human resources and the realistic way forwards to improve it.

The term education deals with a purposeful activity directed at achieving particular aims, such as transmitting knowledge or fostering student skills and character traits. It is a simple yet lifelong process that involves not only learning but also teaching. Commonly, there are three main types of education: formal education, which takes place in proper education and training institutions; informal education- which is any experience having a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts; and non-formal education, which is also structured according to educational arrangements, but in a more flexible manner. Nonetheless, all forms of education have the common function of imparting knowledge to future youth through defined methods, including training, storytelling, teaching, discussion, and directed research. Likewise, by the term human resource, many theorists mean the size of a country’s population concerning its educational qualities, productivity, efficiency, abilities and farsightedness. Human capital is also known as the skills, knowledge, and qualifications of a country’s populace or simply a state’s workforce. Thus, human resource is an end, and education is a means to that end.

In a broader context, education is a human right with immense power to transform. It plays a vital role in the development of human capital, and human capital is essential to building a nation. According to multiple stats, all the developed societies comprise a literacy rate of no less than 80 per cent. Even many countries like Greenland, Finland, and China have an average literacy rate of 100 per cent. Thus, an educated society facilitates a better development program than an illiterate one, improving productivity, prosperity, and enriched life experience. Nonetheless, education is useless until it is relevant, that is, according to the needs of society and demands of the global job markets, uniform and advancing. Likewise, human resources cannot be achieved until quality education is ensured.

On the contrary, in Pakistan, education is treated as a stepchild. The system’s inefficiency has wasted the country’s manpower. Technical education is considered the most practical form of education, potentially developing society’s social and economic aspects through the production of trained labour. Contrarily, Pakistan’s population data analysis concerning education and unemployment reflects gloomy indicators. According to the Planning Commission of Pakistan, less than six per cent of the youth population acquires technical skills, among which only 2 per cent practically implement them. The figures clearly indicated that the techno-vocational institutes of Pakistan lack in both efficiency and productivity, thus, compromising the employment and economic output of the country.

Moreover, the education system in Pakistan is not based on uniform principles. Different schools of thought work simultaneously in the country, mentoring children based on their ideologies and resources. As a result, there is a world of difference between students’ attitudes coming out of the Deeni Madaris, public educational institutions, and the few private elite institutions. Moreover, there are significant disparities in the availability of unified and equal-quality education to individuals of the same society, which has inevitably led to a sense of deprivation among the masses. Consequently, a considerable gap has been created among the nation, and the young generation responsible for running the country’s reign cannot serve the government but in the form of terrorism and sectarian division in society. So, it would not be wrong to say that the ongoing extremist culture in Pakistani society is of this divided education system.

Multiple education theorists believe curriculum is the tool to achieve education goals. It upbrings the children’s minds and enables them to understand and fix societal issues through an innovative approach. Conversely, Pakistan’s curriculum of education is outdated and irrelevant. It has failed to meet the modern standards of teaching and research by compelling the learners to cram book leaves. As a result, their innate sense of freedom in deciding how work should be organized and how tasks should be carried out is hindered. Moreover, the curriculum is not promoting the learners’ interest in practical work, research, scientific knowledge and reflective observation; instead, it emphasizes memory and theory. Hence, the defective curricula of Pakistan’s educational institutions impede innovative minds, resulting in inefficient human resources in the country.  

Another irony of why the country’s education could never achieve efficient human resources is that there has been negligible scientific development in the education sector due to overt budgetary constraints. According to the International Crisis Group, Pakistan stands amongst the 12 countries in the world that spend less than 2 per cent of their GDP on the education sector. Moreover, there are despairingly no facilities for books, libraries and reading materials in all educational institutions of the country. Not only this, the investment in the skill development of teachers, supervisors, students, and technical institutions has been trivial. As a result, the youth of the land of the pure lags behind the world’s human capital. Hence, the scarce finance in the education sector has crippled the sector’s standard of developing skilled youth.

Further, quality research in Pakistan’s education system is still a distant dream. The vices like lethargy and slackness have permeated the county’s research sector to such an extent that teachers and students hardly bother to work hard and put in strenuous efforts in that domain. According to the International Association of Universities, Pakistan is the world’s 20th-largest country in terms of the number of universities. Nonetheless, the country contributes only 0.49 per cent to the world’s entire standardized research documents. As a result, even the highly qualified youth could do nothing to resolve the prevailing socio-economic problems- the essence of research. Hence, the unfocused education system has remained deficient in training the country’s cream for the future of coming generations.

The lack of visionary educational policies due to the political shortage will also fuel the fire of inept human resources in the country. Although every successive government makes ample education policies, none has been implemented in true letter and spirit. According to Iqbal Ahmed, a renowned educationist, even after adopting more than 25 educational policies, the education system has badly failed to produce efficient manpower. To illustrate, when the political leadership of a country is not sincere and nationalist, they do not pay heed to the formation and implementation of far-sighted policies in the country’s education sector. As a result, the youth, even after coming out of the renowned national universities after sixteen years of education, remains useless and incompetent even in their professional space, which promotes lawlessness, corruption, and the governance crisis in the country.  

Adding more to it, the achievement of efficient manpower in Pakistan is thwarted due to the absence of the technical know-how of teachers in schools. There are only limited technical training programs and standards set for the mentors. According to a UNESCO report, inadequate training standards are available in the training institutions, particularly in remote parts of Punjab, Sindh and Baluchistan. Consequently, teachers, particularly in rural areas, remain naïve about modern technologies and their usage. Hence, they stick to the worn-out pedagogies without considering the children’s technical development, producing archaic human resources.

Last but not least, the system’s negligence in the moral development of children promotes intolerance, polarization, and parochialism among the young masses. Therefore, it badly impacts their thoughts and actions. Karimullah, HOD of the sociology department- at the University of Peshawar, aptly depicts the education system as a source of ongoing deep polarization in the country. When morality is not focused in the education sector from the primary level, the vision of the kids that are to be the country’s future is detracted, and they get indulged in extremist and political activities to be in talks. As a result, they fail to serve the country for good. Thus, neglected morality in the education sector buries the talent of the land of the pure even before they bloom.

Nonetheless, there is always a light at the end of the tunnel. Pakistan’s youth can be turned into diamonds of talent and virtuosity if they are educated the way they deserve to be. For this purpose, various measures must be taken. First, the country’s young generation must be provided with result-driven technical and vocational education in rural and urban areas. Although a few technical training programs have been initiated under Technical and Vocational Education and Training Pakistan (TVETT), there is a need to introduce more yielding training courses to not only transmit knowledge, information, values and skills but also able them to be economically independent. Moreover, the TVETT must be made efficient enough that the developed manpower should be able to sustain the pressures on the job and have the aptitude of adaptability in the event of a career change.

Second, there is to be a sufficient budgetary allocation for education in the national GDP. It is a fact that investment in human capital through schooling not only increases the productivity of labour but also helps in nation-building. Moreover, the government should also invest in higher education to promote the practicality of education in achieving efficient human resources.

Third, the quality and quantity of research work in universities must be encouraged through economic and technological incentives. For this purpose, the pace of research-oriented programs in teaching and learning should be accelerated in educational institutions around the country, especially at higher levels. Moreover, there must be university-industry collaboration in R&D through establishing Offices of Research Innovation and Commercialization (ORICs) at universities to extract the best from it.

Fourth, there must be equal distribution of the quality and quantity of education nationwide. Although steps like the Single National Curriculum (SNC) have been adopted, there is much room for improvement since nothing special has been introduced in it that could meet modern education requirements. Thus, instead of just establishing the apparent uniformity via uniformity of the course books below average, equal efforts must be made to provide quality and practicality. Moreover, there must be a deep focus on the Public-private partnership, i.e., the business community, NGO and civil society with the government. It would improve the quality and uniformity of education, ultimately making the maximum number of youth competent enough to serve the nation.

Fifth, since poor policy implementation has led to the creation of gaps and trust deficits on the part of the public and government agencies, strong political will on the part of the government is required in policy implementation in the education sector. Thus, policies should be implemented without any delay in time and resources. Likewise, there must be as little political interference as possible to allow the system to function smoothly and without discrimination.
Sixth, equipped teachers can produce equipped youth; thus, the quality of teaching through frequent teacher training programs must be improved. Further, there should be quality institutions for the professional development of teachers from primary to higher levels. For this purpose, the existing system of teacher education institutions must be provided with funds and qualified human resources to run programs of training for teachers periodically.

Seventh, the curricula must be kept updated and relevant. Therefore, it should be evaluated annually based on the changing requirements. In this regard, a vast survey could be conducted to seek the opinions of teachers, parents and the community regarding their expectations and observations. In this light of this and the expert recommendations of the education researchers, the curriculum goals should be redefined, and such curriculum should be prepared, which caters to the psyche and needs of the society and the country.

Above all, focus on the moral development of the young generation from the primary level of education. To do this, students must be made to practice morality through curricula, school administration, and teachers’ behaviours. Further, Schools should take the initiative to organise activities and festivals that give awareness about social norms and traditions. These would help harness the values in students’ character, ultimately making them responsible citizens.

Despite the multiple failures of Pakistan’s education system in developing human resources, it has somehow managed to create a skilled populace to some extent. However, what is happening to that trained labour? Apathetically, the scourge of brain drain is increasing every passing day in the country. As a result, Pakistan is losing its professors, physicians, engineers, and other qualified individuals, which might be even more disastrous for the nation than not originating human resources. Thus, it is not the case that Pakistanis lack the ability. However, perhaps the skills are not harnessed in the right direction. Therefore, it is high time parallel measures must be taken so that the skilled pool can work for the state’s education system in a way that, in turn, might produce another lot of competent workforce, thus, ultimately, making the nation reach apotheosis.

To conclude, a country’s human resources efficiency depends on its education system. Only a viable education system can enable a nation to achieve its national goals. Unfortunately, Pakistan, as a developing country, has faced critical problems in education: unequipped teachers, lack of political will, irrelevant and outdated curricula, and a non-uniform education trajectory since its inception. Therefore, the education system has failed to play its part in achieving human resources. Nonetheless, the raw potential of the country’s youth can be polished through pragmatic education policies and raising education indicators to help strengthen the country’s position in international politics.

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