Pros and Cons of Globalization for Pakistan

Pros-and-Cons-of-Globalization-for-Pakistan

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The essay is attempted by Iqra Ali on the given pattern, which Sir Syed Kazim Ali teaches to his students, who have consistently been qualifying their CSS, PMS essays. Sir Syed Kazim Ali has been Pakistan’s top English writing and CSS, PMS essay and precis coach with the highest success rate of his students. The essay is uploaded to help other competitive aspirants learn and practice essay writing techniques and patterns.

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Outline

Introduction

  • Globalization has transfigured Pakistan socially, politically, and economically into uncharted territory.
  • Pakistan has procured a golden opportunity to unleash its true potential due to globalization.
  • Globalization has put Pakistan’s sovereignty at stake due to the over-dominance of the world’s superpowers.

What is Globalization?

  • Globalization deals with the interdependence of people, companies, and countries economically, socially, and politically on a global scale.

What are the Positive Impacts of Globalization?

Economic Merits

  1. Increasing  exports and Foreign direct investments
  2. Broadening access to goods and services
  3. Spreading technology and innovation

Political Merits

  1. Suppressing  authoritative governments
  2. Creating awareness among the public
  3. Tackling environmental hazards through international laws and policies

Socio-Cultural Merits

  1. Promoting desi music and art throughout the world
  2. Increasing education opportunities
  3. Lifting people out of poverty

What are the Negative Impacts of Globalization?

Economic Demerits

  1. Destructing local business
  2. Exacerbating the dependency of the state’s economy on foreign investment
  3. Increasing  inequality of income distribution

Political Demerits

  1. Empowering multinational companies at the Cost of national sovereignty
  2. Threatening national political norms of the country
  3. Exacerbating conflicts among the countries for dominance

Socio-Cultural Demerits

  1. Demolishing the multicultural beauty of Pakistan
  2. Westernizing the traditional and religious norms and values
  3. Declining patriotism and national values

Critical Analysis
Conclusion

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Globalization- the unhampered flow of products, technology, information, and jobs across national borders and cultures- has transformed the world’s economy, politics, society, and law, except in Pakistan. Although the country has been one of the founding members of the World Trade Organization (WTO), globalization has not been a choice but an obligation for it under the conditions imposed by international organizations, mainly IMF and World Bank. However, having been hailed with untapped natural and young human resources and its strategic location between energy sources and consumer nations of a population of three billion, Pakistan has procured a golden opportunity to unleash its true potential due to globalization. Free trade opportunities and technological advancements have helped the country grow economically and socially. For instance, the development of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor has enabled it to become an essential player in the geo-economic arena in South Asia. The national talent of art, music, and food has also brought international recognition in the contemporary globalized world.

On the other hand, Pakistan, being an underdeveloped country, has faced multiple challenges due to globalization, among which the threatened sovereignty is the deadliest. Since Pakistan has not made any economic or political policy without the constraints of international organizations and the superpowers it is indebted to, it is being exploited in the international market. The lack of infrastructure, inept leadership, deficient awareness of technology, and the shortage of education are also some hurdles that make the country far less competitive than other globally successful countries. Moreover, the unbridled Westernized culture- promoted vastly by media-is diminishes the essence of traditional and religious norms, taking the country’s norms from collectivism to individualism. The accelerated free movement of drug cartels and terrorists is another negative outcome of globalization in the country. Hence, globalization has made Pakistan a hybrid state, trying to balance liberalism and conservatism. It is high time some strategic changes should be made in the economic and foreign policies of the country so that the best progress could be brought about from globalization leaving behind the drawbacks. As it is aptly said by Mahbub ul Haq- a Pakistani economist, “Globalization is no longer an option; it is a fact. Pakistan must either learn to manage it far more skillfully or drown in the global cross currents.”

In literal meaning, globalization means the transformation of local or regional phenomena into global ones. Since it is a multidimensional process impacting every walk of life, its elucidation varies widely in the literature. For instance, in the economy, globalization is the process through which national economies- to a greater or a lesser extent- absorb into a single global economy. Likewise, cultural anthropologists define globalization as a global flow of information, commodities, images, etc., to flatten out the cultural differences between nations, individuals, and regions. Global warming is the inclination of national policy-making concerning international organizations on political grounds. According to John B. Larson, an American politician and businessman, “Globalization is not a monolithic force but an evolving set of consequences – good, bad, and unintended. It is a new reality.” So, it is not wrong to say that globalization is the most globalized term.

Covering a wide range of distinct socio-politico-economic trends, globalization has greatly influenced Pakistan negatively and positively. To begin with the pros, it has revolutionized Pakistan’s economy the most. The free market economy has bolstered the size of the country’s market for exports and Foreign Direct Investment, which has aided development. Like many underdeveloped countries, Pakistan’s economy has remained highly regulated and protected for the first three decades of its establishment. However, constrained by the domestic economic situation, the pressure of international organizations, and the conditions of the world economy, Pakistan started liberalizing its economy in the 1980s. Hence, today Pakistan’s economy is more liberal than it was a few decades ago, with an increasing role of the private sector in economic development. The development of multiple foreign projects in the country- including the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor and the increasing rate of immigration of Pakistani natives to other countries- is the overt manifestation of the country’s free-market economy, which has not only increased the real capital of the country but also contributed in its institutional developments. Another positive effect of globalization is greater and easier access to products at increasingly cheaper rates. Since liberalization allows multiple national and international companies to sell goods in the country, it has created a competitive environment for the survival and success of businesses. Hence, People have procured the most from free trade since they can buy goods at more affordable rates and, thus, a higher standard of living. Additionally, globalization has increased access to technology and innovation in Pakistan. Through the rapid spread of technology in the region, there is more room for competitive domestic industries to produce quality goods for the locals and export. Putting it briefly, globalization has brought miraculous advancements in the economic progress of Pakistan.

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Moving Further, Globalization- through the quick availability of the internet and interstate communication- has turned the wave of the political culture of Pakistan. It has changed the state-centric views of politics and increased democratic cooperation. Although Pakistan has been a democratic country since its inception, the inept leadership, prevailed corruption, and unnecessary military interventions have made it more of an authoritative government, leaving democracy in the name. However, the globalized media approach has made the citizens aware of their rights and enabled them to revolt against authoritarian rulers. Hence, the rules and policies are now more transparent, and the leaders are more accountable for their performance. Along with national awareness, globalization has helped bring awareness to international issues, including environmental problems. The agreements are made through international non-governmental organizations. Being one of the biggest endorsers of environmental policies, Pakistan has helped a lot in managing climate problems. Recently, the country has made a record in the world’s most ambitious afforestation efforts through a Ten Billion Tree Tsunami spread Policy over Five years. As a result, it has gained an exemplary position for saving the environment worldwide, all thanks to globalization. In short, globalization is not the hope of the people yearning for their rights only, but it has also brought significant awareness in sorting out international problems through international collaborations. 

Besides, globalization has introduced the culture of Pakistan all over the world, creating a colourful image of the country internationally. The land, of pure-like every society- has its own rich and unique culture, traditions, norms, and way of life. Many deep-rooted desi traditions, cuisines, art, and music, run in the blood of Pakistani nationals. They have preserved their culture throughout history and manifested it worldwide through globalization. The Pakistani music genres of folk music, traditional Ghazals, and synchronized Qawwali and Western music by the world-renowned Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan are recognized beyond boundaries. Likewise, border-free travelling has opened the way for students to travel to other counties for higher and more competitive education in many of the world’s best universities. Since there becomes a great chance for people to learn, work, and earn equally without geographical boundaries, globalization-resultantly-has helped alleviate global poverty. Briefly, globalization has not only introduced the culture of Pakistan to the world but has also made education and job opportunities easily available for the state’s people. 

 “Globalization has changed us into a company that searches the world, not just to sell or to source, but to find intellectual capital – the world’s best talents and greatest ideas.”

-Jack Welch, an American business executive

Although globalization has multiple positive impacts, it is every benefit comes with a caveat. It has posed significant risks to developing countries, including Pakistan, by greatly benefiting Multinational corporations and prosperous governments. First, the threat of globalization leads to the domestic loss of business and jobs. In Pakistan, living depends on tech-based products imported from developed countries. Additionally, foreign-invested companies in the already low-employed country tend to provide international goods, thus, destroying the local business. Thus, the state’s economy depends on foreign direct investments, imports, or even debts with high-interest rates. According to the World Bank, the external debt of Pakistan has been raised to sixty-six million USD from 2002 until 2021. As a result, the country has been bound to make its economic and foreign policies under the obligations of the global economy regulating bodies like the World Bank and the International Monterey Fund. Additionally, globalization has been disastrous for the country’s working class. They are exploited to work at significantly lower wages in both the foreign-invested business within the country and as labour in other countries. Advancement in technology has further aggravated the risk of unemployment for workers. Hence, economic globalization has led to income inequality, making Pakistan more dependent on other powers. As it is aptly said by Winnie Byanyima, Executive Director of Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations- UNAIDS, “The widening gap between rich and poor is not just a natural phenomenon. It is a sign that much of what we have been doing, especially in terms of models of economic growth, has been wrong.” 

On political grounds, one of the most preponderant demerits of globalization is the threatened sovereignty of the state. National sovereignty is at stake due to unnecessary interventions of international organizations and multinational companies in state affairs. Pakistan is a highly affected victim of politically and economically stable international political alliances due to its significant economic and significant dependency on international organizations and world powers. As a result, the country’s leaders are made to feel that they lack decision-making ability and are persuaded to modify the structure of their government. Consequently, the stronger nations are trying to overrule the land of the pure by being directly or indirectly involved in its political independence as a state. For instance, America has been using the land of Pakistan for its vested interest in the Afghan war and, subsequently, in the war on terror. Hence, globalization has demolished the national political structure of the state and led to an erosion of its national sovereignty, thus, destroying its peace. 

Last but not least, globalization has badly impacted the socio-cultural diversity of Pakistan. It has hurt the state’s religious and ethical norms and demolished its multicultural beauty. For instance, the national dress of Pakistan is Shalwar Kameez. However, the Westernization of men’s and women’s dressing is degrading the country’s culture. Likewise, McDonaldization, fast-food culture, is widespread in the streets and shopping malls of the country despite its deep-rooted desi cuisine. Hence, the idea of flattened global culture has now become the imposition of Western values, beliefs, and norms on the rest of the world. Consequently, psychological problems like Xenocentrism- the belief that other cultures are superior to one’s own- and Ethnophaulism- the hatred belief for one’s nation- have drastically increased in the country. All thanks are due to globalization. Above all, it has diminished the importance of nationalism in the already shattered ethnicity of Pakistan. People from all provinces who are ready to kill their countrymen belonging to a sect and culture different from theirs are eager to adopt the Western culture. Hence, globalization creates an imbalance between patriotism and globalism. To put it briefly, globalization has badly ruined Pakistan’s cultural norms and values. 

Critically, globalization is a dichotomy with both comforts and harms. However, for Pakistan, the benefits accrued from globalization are nearly nothing. It has been a sour phenomenon for its youth looking for a job since the unemployment rate is continuously growing. Additionally, infrastructure and trade have not exhibited any significant performance after globalization. Poverty incidences are also reported to be increased. Above all, the prevalent Western culture has demolished the religious and cultural norms of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Hence, globalization is not a panacea for whole-lot-of problems that Pakistan faces. Nonetheless, Pakistan must educate and train its people on every ground to benefit from globalization.

In a nutshell, globalization has brought multiple transformations in Pakistan. Despite being a latecomer to be encompassed in the globalized world, the country, with its geographically important location at the crossroads separating South Asia from Central Asia and the Middle East, has gained a lot of political, social, and above all economic benefits from the globalized world. However, it could not actively participate in the growing world trade of goods and services, foreign investment, technological advancements, and skill supply. The serious concern is the underdevelopment of the country’s human resources and the low skill intensity of its labour force. Unless the quality and outreach of education, training, literacy, skills, and health status are significantly improved, the country will remain handicapped in maximizing the benefits of globalization. Therefore, the challenge to be successful in the shrivelled world is not beyond the reach of Pakistan; instead, it can be achieved easily with smart policy-making and determined collective effort.

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