CSS and PMS Solved Essay | Consequences of American Withdrawal from Afghanistan on South Asia | CSS and PMS Solved Essays by Sir Syed Kazim Ali Students
Arooj Nadeem, who scored the highest marks in PMS Punjab essay paper, attempts the essay on the given pattern, which Sir Syed Kazim Ali teaches his students, who have consistently been qualifying their CSS and PMS essays. Sir Syed Kazim Ali has been Pakistan’s top English writing and CSS, PMS essay and precis coach with the highest success rate of his students. The essay is uploaded to help other competitive aspirants learn and practice essay writing techniques and patterns.
- ✓ American withdrawal from Afghanistan has many consequences for South Asia.
- ✓ Presently, the Taliban are in power, and America has imposed sanctions on the government.
- ✓ The region has become vulnerable to terrorism, extremism, refugee crisis, and socio-economic disaster.
- ✓ The role of the regional and international actors in ensuring stability in Afghanistan is high, and they need time to ensure peace in the region.
2- A Critical Overview of Afghanistan’s Situation
✓ The Taliban rule in Afghanistan and the American sanctions on the country have pushed it into a vicious socio-economic and political crisis.
3- A Cursory Glance at the reasons for American’s withdrawal
- ✓ Costly War in Afghanistan
- ✓ Global Economic Disaster due to COVID
- ✓ Political Pressure at Home
4- Consequences of American Withdrawal for South Asia
- ✓ Rise of Terrorism
- ✓ Intensification of Extremist Ideologies
- ✓ Escalation of Refugee Crisis
- ✓ Intensification of Economic Crisis
- ✓ Deterioration of the Social Sector
- ✓ Escalation of India-Pakistan Tensions
- ✓ Increase of Western Imperialism
5- Remedial Measures to Overcome the Threats
- ✓ To Counter the Humanitarian Crisis in Afghanistan
- ✓ To Ensure Democracy under the Taliban Rule
- ✓ To Strengthen the Political Institutions of the State
- ✓ To Ensure Border Fencing Between Pakistan and Afghanistan
- ✓ To Bring Economic Investments into the Country
- ✓ To Control the Rise of Extremist Ideologies through Media
6- Critical Analysis
The abrupt withdrawal of America from Afghanistan has threatened the South Asian region’s peace, prosperity, and stability. In fact, leaving the country in the hands of the Taliban government can give rise to terrorism and the refugee crisis, which can ultimately pose a vicious socio-economic and political disaster in the region. However, the Super Power has turned its back on the region and taken the strange decision due to the economic burden of its presence in the war-ridden country, coupled with intense political pressure at home. Consequently, multiple threats – like the rise of terrorism and extremist ideologies, intensification of the socio-economic crisis, escalation of India-Pakistan tensions, and the danger of refugee crisis – have started knocking on the region’s doors. However, suppose the regional and international entities cooperate to counter the humanitarian crisis, ensure democracy, strengthen political institutions and provide economic investments in Afghanistan. In that case, the region can be saved from predicted turmoil. Without any doubt, the region’s prosperity and stability are dependent on the political situation of Afghanistan. Therefore, the mentioned measures should be taken to pull the country – and ultimately the region – out of the threat. The following essay discusses the present situation in Afghanistan, the consequences of American withdrawal, and remedial measures to cope with the predicted harsh future of the region – South Asia.
Afghanistan’s internal and external affairs are currently under the head of the Taliban government. As Joe Biden’s administration paces up the withdrawal of troops from the country last year, the Taliban has started to capture Afghanistan. And on 15th August 2021, the Taliban successfully overthrew the previous Afghan government and established their rule in the country. As they come to power, they start to violate democratic principles. Ultimately, as a reaction, America imposes harsh economic sanctions on the country, freezing its Foreign Exchange Reserves of nine billion dollars. Moreover, the aid is also stopped by the Super Power, making the country face its worst humanitarian crisis. According to the crisis group report, half of the country’s population is facing food insecurity. In short, the Taliban rule and America’s reaction in the form of sanctions proved fatal for the country’s future.
Coming to the causes of American withdrawal from Afghanistan, the cost of the American war against terrorism is at the top of the list. According to Pentagon – the defence wing of America – the war in Afghanistan has cost 2 trillion dollars to the American exchequer. In addition, the global pandemic, which has severely jolted the global economy, including the Super Power, has also become a reason behind the decision of the largest economy. Above all, strong political pressure at home convinced the American political arena to withdraw from Afghanistan. Hence, the above factors have been crucial in America’s decision to leave Afghanistan.
Undoubtedly, multiple threats have started knocking on South Asia’s doors after America’s decision. First, the region has become vulnerable to the rise of terrorist elements. As the political institutions in Afghanistan are not developed to counter terrorists, the country has become a haven for multiple militant groups: Al-Qaeda, Tehreek Taliban Pakistan, and East Turkestan Movement. From the country, these groups have started to carry on their vicious agenda in the region. Hence, the rise of terrorism beyond limits is one of the threats the region can face in future.
As a result of the rise of extremist militant groups, the region has also become susceptible to the expansion of extremist religious ideologies. The militant groups have started instigating extremist factions in the region to spread orthodox religious doctrines. As a reaction to the orthodox Islamic ideology projected by the extremist groups in Afghanistan, the extremist factions of the other religious groups have also started to spread their ideologies. Therefore, the region can face the cruel expansion of orthodox religious ideologies in the future.
Apart from the above, a vicious refugee crisis has started knocking on the doors of the region; as the Taliban have come up with their anti-democratic political system, many Afghanis have started to leave the country and seek refuge in the neighbouring countries; the movement of refugees in South-Asia can increase further if the Taliban government remains stuck with their political agenda. Thus, a cruel refugee crisis can capture the region in its web due to instability in Afghanistan caused by the abrupt withdrawal of America.
In addition, the United States’ withdrawal has brought the region under the cruel threat of an economic crisis. First, the regional states must divert their spending from development projects to security departments to counter-terrorism. Second, the influx of refugees can severely burden the states’ economic sectors. Last, the threat of terrorism can reduce the inflow of Foreign Direct investment. Therefore, the withdrawal of American troops from Afghanistan can push the region into a severe economic crisis.
Above all, the American withdrawal can cruelly jolt the region’s social sector. Already crumbling, the movement of many refugees can overburden many regional states’ social sectors. Consequently, the state’s capacity to provide proper health and education can become challenging. Moreover, the threat of terrorism can take the lives of many citizens and can cause injury to many. In short, the social sector of the regional countries is under dire threat due to the withdrawal of America from Afghanistan.
Along with the deterioration of the social sector, the decision of the largest economy has made the region a nuclear flash point by intensifying India-Pakistan tensions. As Pakistan’s western border’s instability has increased significantly, India’s aggression from the East has intensified. As both states are nuclear powers, the threat of nuclear conflict is increased, having consequences for the world. Therefore, the region’s vulnerability to nuclear conflict has increased due to the withdrawal of American troops from the war-ridden country.
Last, Western imperialism’s risk has intensified due to the end of American involvement in the region. It is because the socioeconomic crisis of the regional countries can intensify in the future, forcing them to knock on the doors of international monetary organizations: the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. The present record of these organizations is not very encouraging as they carry on the agenda of Western imperialism through their conditional loading mechanism. Thus, the region can become a victim of Western imperialist objectives in the future.
As every problem has a solution, the same is true with the region’s threat. Undoubtedly, the threat can only be countered by resolving Afghanistan’s socio-political and economic issues. Therefore, on the first hand, the humanitarian crisis the country is facing is required to be controlled. For it, international powers are required to ensure the transfer of humanitarian aid to the Afghans. Only through countering the humanitarian crisis in Afghanistan the movement of Afghan refugees to South-Asia can be reduced.
Apart from the above, it is a high need for time to convince the Taliban to forego their orthodox political agenda and ensure democratic values in the country. Indeed, the role of Pakistan and China is very important in this regard. Pakistan, through its good terms with the Taliban and China through its economic diplomacy, can fulfil the task. If democracy establishes its roots in the country, it can free itself from harsh sanctions, which can consequently overcome the threat to the region.
In addition, the political institutions of Afghanistan should be strengthened to counter the rise of terrorist elements there. It is because of the inability of the state’s institutions – particularly the law enforcement departments – that it is unable to dismantle the terrorist elements rising in the land. If the task is achieved effectively, the region’s vulnerability to terrorism can reduce. Therefore, international and regional actors must be involved with the sitting government war-ridden country to strengthen its political institutions.
Above all, the unresolved Durand Line issue between the two neighbouring countries of the region – Afghanistan and Pakistan – must be resolved. As most of the terrorism infiltration in the region occurs through the porous border between the two states, the fencing of the border is a high need of time. In this regard, the role of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation cannot be ignored. Hence, the only organization of the Muslim countries should play its role to ensure the fencing of the Durand Line border to counter the infiltration of terrorism in the region.
Along with resolving the border issue between Afghanistan and Pakistan, economic investments in the dismantled country are required to ensure socio-economic and political stability there. If stability is ensured in the country, the negative consequences for the region can be overpowered. For it, all the big economies – particularly China and Russia – must invest in the country. Indeed, the rising power – China – aims to invest in Afghanistan to connect South Asia with Central Asia and the Middle East. Therefore, China is required to do reconstruction in Afghanistan to prevent South Asia from collapsing.
Last, the positive role of media is also required to spread modern religious views. As the present era is the era of information warfare, extremist groups are spreading their orthodox ideologies through modern communication tactics. To counter these ideologies and strengthen their roots in the region, regional media outlets must broadcast programmes and interviews meant to spread liberal ideologies. Only through the positive role of media can the region be free from the degradation of democracy.
The decision of America to end its involvement in Afghanistan has brought South Asia on the verge of socio-economic and political collapse. However, it was decided in the Doha Deal of 2021 that the United States would ensure a political solution in Afghanistan before the complete withdrawal of troops. But, sadly, as COVID hits the American economy cruelly, the Super Power has set aside the region’s concerns and decided to reduce the burden on its economic sector. The selfish act of America is not something that is not experienced by many countries in the past. America did the same in the 1990s when it left Afghanistan after the end of the Soviet-Afghan war. Therefore, the region should take a lesson this time and prevent the involvement of any state in the future.
In a nutshell, the United States’ withdrawal from Afghanistan – consequently, the Taliban coming to power – has posed a tower of miseries over the South-Asia region. Out of all the negative consequences for the region, the rise of terrorism, socio-economic collapse, refugee crisis, and rise of orthodox ideologies sit on the top of the list. To overpower the consequences, stability in Afghanistan by countering its humanitarian crisis, ensuring democracy, and strengthening its political institutions is necessary. Therefore, the decision of America has brought the region on the verge of collapse, but implementing the mentioned measures can overturn the problem.
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