Solved CSS Everyday Science (GSA) Paper 1985, CSS Everyday Science Solved Paper 1985, CSS GSA Solved Paper 1985, CSS Solved Past Papers, CSS Solved Papers
It is a solved past paper f CSS Everyday Science 1985 (CSS GSA Solved Paper 1985). I have written all the answers briefly to help students score maximum marks. In this paper, I have answered each of the questions according to the requirements set by the Federal Public Service Commission (FPSC). It should be noted that students who write extra and un-necessary information are not awarded extra marks. So, always try to write answers briefly and precisely.
The paper is solved by Miss. Ambar Fiaz on the request of CSSPrepForum. Share with your friends and other aspirants so that they can have an idea on how to attempt the GSA paper and to what extent an aspirant is expected to write to fetch the maximum marks.
Question – 1: Fill in the blanks:
- When the resultant of all the forces acting on a body is zero the body is said to be in a state of equilibrium.
- Gamma rays are similar to X-rays.
- The phenomenon of separation of ordinary light into its constituent colours is known as dispersion.
- If a body weights 600kg on the surface of the earth then the weight of the same body on the surface of the moon will 1/6 × 600 = 100kg
- When a bullet penetrates into a target, the kinetic energy of a bullet is converted into mechanical energy.
Question – 2: Draw a well-labelled diagram of the human eye. Explain the image formation.
The well labeled diagram of human eye is given below:
Ciliary muscles support the lens of the eyes. They help to decrease the curvature and increase the focal length of the eye and vice versa. When the object is placed near to the eye, its focal length is decreased in a way that a clear image of the object is formed on the retina of the eye. On the other hand, when the object is placed at a distance, the focal length is increased and a distinct image is formed on the retina. The image formed by the eye is a virtual image. The human eye works the same as a pinhole camera. The iris and pupil control the amount of light entering into the eyes. This is how an image is formed in a human eye.
Question – 3: What are latitude and longitudes? Why are they drawn?
Answer: The latitude and longitudes are defined as:
An imaginary line drawn on the globe equidistant from the poles (North and South) is called the equator. On a globe, the measurement from the equator to the North and South Pole is called latitude. It is measured in degrees and fractions. The horizontal lines on a globe or map are latitude as shown in the figure:
An imaginary line drawn on the globe equidistant from the poles (East and West)is called Prime Meridian. On a globe, the measurement from prime meridian to the East and West pole is called longitude. It is also measured in degrees and fractions. The vertical lines on the globe indicate longitudes as shown in the above figure. It is an angular measurement and denoted by the Greek letter lambda (λ). Latitude and longitude are drawn to locate places accurately on the globe. It helps the people to identify the desired places on the earth precisely. To know the complete and exact location both, longitude and latitude, are required.
Question – 4: Explain the term Element and Compound as used in Chemistry?
Answer: The term element and compound are used in Chemistry as:
A substance made up of indistinguishable atoms, having same atomic numbers, is known as an element. For example, Iron, gold, silver, and oxygen, etc. They all are made up of only one type of atom.
When two or more than two elements chemically combine together in a fixed proportion, a compound is formed. For example, Methane is made up of four hydrogen atoms and a single carbon atom in a compound. Water, baking soda, and table salt are also examples of the compound.
Question – 5: Explain any two of the following statements.
- The work output of a machine is always equal to the work input?
Although for an ideal machine the work output is always equal to the work input, for the actual machine both can never be equal to each other. As some of the input work is used to overcome friction, the work output (also called machine efficiency) is always less than the input work. It is true that machines make work easier, but they don’t increase the amount of work that is done. We can never get more work out of a machine than we put into it. In fact, a machine always does less work on an object than the user does on the machine.
There is a distinctive difference between the work input (Input force) and the work output (Efficiency). Input is the work that describes the amount of force put into the machine. Whereas, the output is the result that a machine produces as a result of the input. Thus, the work output is always less than the work input, so an actual machine cannot be 100 per cent efficient.
2- The gravity of all the objects is the same, regardless of their mass at a given point on the earth’s surface?
The acceleration due to gravity experienced by an object falling freely close to the Earth’s surface is always a constant. It has the same value, irrespective of the mass of the object. Galileo discovered this surprising fact 400 hundred years ago when he dropped two cannonballs of different mass from the top of the Leaning Tower of Pisa and observed that they took approximately the same time to reach the ground.
If an object is dropped from a certain height, it falls back to the ground after some time. When a body falls freely it gets accelerated in spite of their weight. Whether the body is heavy or light, it will touch the ground with the same acceleration in the same time period. The acceleration attained by the body at the moment is due to gravity and is denoted by “g”. The value of “g” is 9.8m/s2. Thus, the gravity of all the objects is the same, regardless of their mass at a given point on the earth’s surface.
Question – 6: What are the symptoms and mode of transmission of the following diseases? Tetanus, Rabies, Tuberculosis.
Answer: The symptoms and mode of transmission of the following diseases are explained hereunder.
At the early stage of the disease, a patient feels indolent and within a few days he starts to feel difficulty in opening his mouth and swallowing. He becomes unable to move his jaws as they become vigorously closed. He cannot control the urine or faeces anymore.
The symptoms of tetanus include:
- Jaw cramping (Lockjaw)
- Sudden, involuntary muscle tightening (muscle spasms)
- Painful muscle stiffness all over the body
- Trouble swallowing
- Fever and sweating
- Changes in blood pressure and fast heart rate
Mode of transmission:
The bacteria are present on the soil, especially in the areas where animal’s faeces are used as fertilizers. In the stomach of the human body, the bacteria are harmless, but, if they enter in the open wounds of the body they multiply in the amount immediately. A toxic substance, produced by the bacteria, affects the nervous system and hinders the human body adversely.
The early symptoms of rabies could appear from a few days to more than a year after the bite happens. At first, there’s a tingling, prickling, or itching feeling around the bite area. A person also might have flu-like symptoms such as a fever, headache, muscle aches, loss of appetite, nausea, and tiredness.
Mode of transmission:
It is transmitted in a human body by the saliva of an infected animal; such as, dog. It affects the nervous system of the human body if the saliva enters into the body directly or through the wounds. The person must be treated at its initial stage, before symptoms appear.
The symptoms of tuberculosis include:
- A cough that lasts more than three weeks
- Loss of appetite and unintentional weight loss
- Night sweats
Mode of transmission:
Tuberculosis can be transmitted through the air. When an infected person coughs, speaks or sings nearby the people, they get infected surely.
Question – 7: What do you know about soaps and detergents? How do they differ from each other? What are the advantages of detergents over soap?
Answer: Both soaps and detergents are chemical compound (The mixture of compounds) that used as a cleansing agent. To describe more briefly, soap is a sodium salt (Also known as potassium salt), which is a combination of fatty acids and have cleansing action in water. On the other hand, detergent is a surfactant, which has cleaning properties. Detergents, like soaps, are amphiphilic. It means they have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions. Most detergents are akylbenzenefulfonates.
Difference between Soap and Detergent
The key differences between soaps and detergents are tabulated below.
|Difference Between Soap and Detergent|
|Consist of a ‘-COONa’ group attached to a fatty acid having a long alkyl chain.||Consist of a ‘-SO3Na’ group attached to a long alkyl chain.|
|Like detergents, they are not effective in hard water and saline water.||Unlike soaps, They do not lose their effectiveness in hard and saline water.|
|Soaps are completely biodegradable||Detergents are non-biodegradable|
|They have a tendency to form scum.||These compounds do not form scum.|
|The derivatives of soaps are vegetable oils and animal fats.||Detergents are synthetic derivatives.|
|Examples of soaps: sodium palmitate and sodium stearate.||Examples of detergents: deoxycholic acid and sodium lauryl sulfate.|
Advantages of Detergents over soaps:
(i) Detergents work well even with hard water, whereas, soaps do not.
(ii) Detergents may be used in saline or acidic water, but soaps do not.
(iii) As compared to soaps, detergents are more easily soluble in water.
(iv) Unlike soaps, detergents can be used for washing woollen garments.
(v) Detergents are biodegradable, while, soaps are not.
Question – 8: What is a mechanism by which the balance of nitrogen is maintained in the atmosphere?
Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is the mechanism by which the balance of nitrogen is maintained in the atmosphere. It occurs when atmospheric nitrogen is converted to ammonia by an enzyme called nitrogenase. Nitrogenases are enzymes used by some organisms to fix atmospheric nitrogen gas (N2).
Nitrogen is very essential for plants, animals, and human beings. It is building material for men’s body. Men get it from the plants, directly or indirectly. Along with other gases, air contains 78% nitrogen gas, but animals and plants cannot take it directly from the air. Nitrogen, present in the air, is changed into soil nitrates first. The green plants take nitrates from the soil and convert them into amino acid, which is required by the plants to make proteins for their growth. When animals eat these plants, the ammonic acid is transferred into their body. The defecation of these animals and dead bodies of plants are converted into ammonia. By chemosynthetic bacteria, ammonia is converted into nitrates, which are again absorbed by the plants. Thus, Nitrogen Fixation is the mechanism by which the balance of nitrogen is maintained in the atmosphere.
Question – 9: Give the names of five major mountain ranges of Pakistan?
The names of five major mountain ranges of Pakistan are given below:
- The Himalayan Range
- The Karakoram Range
- The Hindu Kush Range
- The Suleiman Range
- The Salt Range
Question – 10: What is lightning? How it is caused? Why it is considered to be dangerous?
What is lightening?
Lightning is a flash of an electric discharge between the clouds and the ground or within the clouds themselves. Most of the lightning occurs in the clouds. Contrary to the misconception, lightning can and often does strike the same place twice.
How is it caused?
Lightning starts as a static charge in the clouds. Winds inside the clouds, where lightning could form, get very turbulent. While, water droplets in the bottom area of the clouds are caught in the updrafts, and then, lifted to the greatest heights, where the much colder atmosphere freezes them all. At the same time, downdrafts in the cloud push ice and hail down from the top of the cloud. Where the ice going down meets the water coming up, electrons are stripped off. What results are a cloud with a negatively charged bottom and a positively charged top? These electrical fields become incredibly strong, with the atmosphere acting as an insulator between them in the cloud.
Why is it considered to be dangerous?
Lightening is harmful to crops and other living organisms alike. Lightning is a major cause of storm-related deaths in the world. Its strike can result in a cardiac arrest (heart-stopping) and irreversible brain damage. Lightning conductors are used to protecting the plants and animals from harmful effects of lightning.
Question – 11: Indicate connections between items in list A and list B by making matching pairs.
List A: Tuberculosis, Liver, Stomach Wall, Hemoglobin, Malaria
List B: Iron, Anopheles, Glycogen, Pepsin, B.C.G
|List A||List B|
Question – 12: Rainwater is soft and river water is hard, why? How can the hardness of water be removed?
The softness or hardness of the water is measured by the fact that whether the water possesses calcium and magnesium, the principals of the hard water. Rainwater is softer as compared to river water. This is because the rainwater is formed by the vaporization of the sear or river water, and the vaporized water droplets don’t contain any minerals in it. Thus, rainwater is soft. On the other hand, the river water that runs on the soil, dissolves minerals. Therefore, the river water is considered hard.
How can the hardness of water be removed?
The hardness of the water can be removed chemically. Water can become soft by the addition of lime into it. Lime precipitates calcium as the carbonates and the magnesium as hydroxide. At which point, the sodium carbonate is added to remove the remaining calcium salt. The remaining water is soft water, free from any minerals that can make water hard.
Question – 13: Describe the construction and use of a transformer?
Answer: A transformer is made up of two windings and a laminated steel core. The coils in the transformer are insulated from each other as well as from the steel core as shown in the figure.
To reduce the current loss, laminated sheets of steel are used. There are two major types of transformer on the basis of construction.
- Core Type Transformer
- Shell Type Transformer
Use of transformer:
Transformers are commonly used for increasing low AC voltage at the high current or decreasing high AC voltage at low current in electrical appliances, which are widely used at our homes. Step-down transformers are used for obtaining large current and welding purpose. Step-up transformers are used in voltage regulators and stabilized power supplies. Small transformers are used in telephones, radio sets, loudspeakers, and electric bells, etc.
Question – 14: Describe the followings?
(a) Discuss the industrial preparation of artificial ghee.
(b) Name the cement factories in Pakistan and enumerate its preparation.
(a) Discuss the industrial preparation of artificial ghee.
The oil that is comestible is purified first. Then, it is decolorized with animal coal and Fuller’s earth. The odor of the oil is removed by heating process. Caustic soda is used for further purifying process. To get rid of moisture, the oil is heated at 180°C and nickel is used as a catalyst. Hydrogen gas is passed through the process. When the oil gets cold, nickel catalyst is removed by the process of filtration. The process continues till the odor and color of the oil is completely removed. To make it tasteful, few ingredients are added into it. To increase its nutritional values, Vitamin A and D are added into it. Artificial ghee is also flavored. It is the precise method of industrial preparation of artificial ghee.
(b) Name the cement factories in Pakistan and enumerate its preparation.
At present, there are 22 cement factories in Pakistan, 14 in the public sector, and 8 in the private sector. Some of the famous are the following:
Wah Factory, Wah
Maple leaf, Daudkhel
Preparation of Cement:
The raw material for the preparation of cement is combined in a suitable proportion to form cement. The raw material for the cement includes Limestone, gypsum, and clay containing Silica, Alumina, Iron oxide, and Magnesium.
- Dry Process: When the raw material is dry and hard, dry process is used to make cement.
- Wet Process: In this process, the raw material is grinded and mixed with water to make it slurry. The slurry is heated at 1000°C in the rotary kiln. At this temperature, limestone decomposes. Calcium oxide combines with silica and alumina to form the clinker at 1500°C. The clinker is grinded and the small amount of gypsum is added into it. To get a very fine powder, it is further grinds in Ball Mills and put into bags for marketing.
It is the precise way of preparation of cement.
Question – 15: Name the discoveries of the following scientists: Watson and Crick, Louis Pasteur, Alexander Fleming, Mendel, and Edward Jenner.
The discoveries of the following scientists are given below:
|Watson and Crick||D.N.A|
|Louis Pasteur||Rabies Vaccination|
|Mendel||Genetics Laws of Heredity|
|Eward Jenner||Vaccination against small pox|
Question – 16: What do you know about the following?
Alloy, Amalgam, Aqua Regia, Heavy Water, Dry Ice, Methylated Spirit, and Chloroform.
- Alloy: When two or more metals combine together, the alloy is formed.
- Amalgam: The mixture of mercury with other metals is called Amalgam. It is present in the liquid, a soft paste or solid form.
- Aqua Regia: A mixture of nitric acid (HNO3) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) in which gold and platinum are added is called Aqua Regia.
- Heavy Water: In heavy water, hydrogen is replaced with the deuterium, which is an isotope of hydrogen. Usually, it is used as a moderator in nuclear reactors.
- Dry Ice: Solid carbon dioxide is known as dry ice. When it is heated, it is directly converted into the gaseous state by the process of sublimation. Its chemical formula is CO2.
- Methylated Spirit: It is a compound, which is formed by carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. It is used in laboratories. It is also used to cure injuries. . Its chemical formula is CH3OH.
- Chloroform: It is made up of carbon, hydrogen, and chlorine. It is widely used in hospitals to faint the patients. Its chemical formula is CHCL3.
ABOUT THE WRITER:
Miss Ambar Fiaz is an M.S Physics, and being a lecturer, she has years of experience of providing coaching on Science subjects. On the request of cssprepforum, she has agreed to solve all the CSS GSA Past Papers to let aspirants how to attempt GSA paper in the CSS exam to score the maximum. She has been providing guidance to thousands of competitive aspirants on how to attempt science papers and what to prepare.
I have decided to solve all the CSS Everyday Science (Now General Science & Ability – GSA) papers to let aspirants know how to attempt the paper to fetch up to 90 marks. GSA paper of CSS is one of the most scoring papers if an aspirant gives it a serious read. Currently, the issue that thousands of CSS aspirants face is they are just provided low-quality study materials: books & notes but are never told how to attempt the paper. Miss Ambar Saying
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