What are carbohydrates? Classify and give detail of each class along with examples.


Written By Khansa Yousaf

Carbohydrates are organic compounds that consist of only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Saccharide, another name of carbohydrates, is derived from Greek word Sakkron which means sugar. Their empirical formula is Cm(H₂O)n where m can be different from n. They are found in a large variety of food like cereals, honey, milk, potato, sugar beet, dates, pasta and sugarcane. They provide most of the energy that keeps the human engine running. Besides, carbohydrates are a rich source of energy in many plants and animals.

Classification of carbohydrates:

They are classified into simple carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates.

Simple Carbohydrates: Simple carbohydrates are monosaccharides and oligosaccharides. 

  • Monosaccharides: 

Monosaccharides are the simplest sugars, which cannot be hydrolyzed. Their general formula is Cn(H₂O)n. They are further subdivided into trioses, tetroses, pentoses, hexoses, heptoses etc. 

Examples of Monosaccharides:

  • Glucose: 

Glucose, the fundamental unit of carbohydrates, is an immediate source of energy for cellular respiration and blood sugar. Naturally, it is found in blood and urine of animals, honey, and sweet fruit, especially ripe grapes and mangoes.  

  • Galactose:

It is a sugar produced by mammals and is found in milk and yogurt.

  • Fructose:

Fructose is found in honey.

  • Oligosaccharides:

They are compound sugars. On hydrolysis, they yield two to ten molecules of the same or different monosaccharides. Depending upon the number of monosaccharides yielded on hydrolysis, oligosaccharides are classified into disaccharides, trisaccharides, tetrasaccharides and so on. The general formula of a disaccharide is Cn(H₂O)n-1. Common examples of disaccharides are sucrose, lactose, and maltose.  

  • Sucrose: 

It is one of the most common disaccharides, which is found in table sugar. On hydrolysis, it gives glucose and fructose.

  • Lactose: 

Another important disaccharide is lactose which is found in milk. 

  • Maltose: 

It is a product of starch digestion. Maltose and lactose are also known as milk sugar.

  • Complex carbohydrates: 

Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates.

  • Polysaccharides:

Polysaccharides are complex sugars that yield more than ten molecules of monosaccharides on hydrolysis. Their general formula is (C₆H₁₀O₅)n. They are further classified into homo-polysaccharides and hetero-polysaccharides.  

  • Homo polysaccharides:

They are made up of monosaccharides of the same type. Examples of homo polysaccharides are starch, glycogen, cellulose, and pectin. 

  • Hetero polysaccharides

They consist of molecules of different types of monosaccharides. Examples are Hyaluronic acid and Chondroitin.


Miss Khansa Yousaf is one of the bonafide students of Sir Syed Kazim Ali. She has completed her 5 month-course on Online Creative English Writing and Advanced Grammar under his patronage. Having done graduation in science and courses in creative English writing, she loves writing blogs and articles about science and life.

Name of the Student: Miss Khansa Yousaf
Qualifications: B.Sc. (Physics, Maths)
Total Articles/Blogs: 2
English Coach: Sir Syed Kazim Ali
Course Taken: Creative English Writing & Article Writing

Like other competitive students, If you have a story to tell, guidance to help, knowledge to educate, or a perspective that can help CSS aspirants daily, welcome to CSSPrepForum. It is free to get your opinions, viewpoints, judgements, and thinking published, whether it is a blog, article, essay, application, letter, precis, comprehension, MCQs, or anything that helps competitive youth of Pakistan. CSSPrepForum is a place that let you connect with thousands of competitive readers, and helps your voice heard across the community. Let’s start writing and get your voice heard to those who are looking for you. Write to us

CSS 2022 Solved Pakistan Affairs Past Papers

The following are the CSS 2022 Pakistan Affairs solved past papers questions. These questions have been evaluated and checked by Pakistan’s top Pakistan Affairs and Current Affairs coaches, who are either lecturers or officers and scored the highest marks in this paper. They include Miss Saba Baloch (CSS-2021), Miss Aimeen Mirza (CSS 2018), Miss Nirmal Hasni (DD NAB), Sir Rameez Ch. (Lecturer & Deputy Director), and Miss Zaineb Azam (the highest scorer – 76). Moreover, these questions have been attempted on the same pattern taught by Sir Syed Kazim Ali to his students who have been scoring the highest marks for years.

Q.1Discuss The Issues And Mistrust In US-Pakistan Relations After The Withdrawal Of The U.S. Troops From Afghanistan.
Q.2What Is The Volume Of The Grants, Aids And Loans In Pakistan’s Economy In The Last Ten Years To Stimulate Growth? Discuss
Q.3Why Did Pakistan Join Western Defense Pacts? What Cost It Had To Pay For It. Explain
Q.4Every State Designs Its Foreign Policy On National Interests Rejecting Feelings And Emotions. Why Did Pakistan Prefer Emotions, Feelings, And Ideology In Its Foreign Policy? Also, Analyze Its Impacts
Q.5Evaluate The Factional Politics Of The Early Years (1947-58) And Their Impact On The Democratic Process Of Pakistan.
Q.6Discuss The Federal Structure Of 1973 Constitution Of Pakistan After 18th Amendment. Why criticism On 18th Amendment Started Recently?
Q.7Discuss The Role Of Regional And Nationalist Political Parties In Pakistani Politics? How Far These Parties Are Necessary For The Political System?

CSS 2021 Solved Pakistan Affairs Questions

Q.2Enumerate the measures adopted by Pakistan to spotlight on the plight of Kashmiri people in the Indian occupied Jammu and Kashmir after 5th August 2019.
Q.3Now Outdated Question
Q.4How CPEC phase II will galvanize industrialization and employment in Pakistan?
Q.5Discuss the Significance of Renewable Energy Resources for Pakistan.
Q.6How Pakistan should combat the 5th generation war?
Q.7Political Stability is mandatory for economic prosperity in Pakistan. Elaborate.
Q.8Critically Evaluate the Evolution of Muslim Separate Identity in the Sub-Continent.

More Essays

  1. Meaning Purposive Education
  2. Bureaucracy Doldrums
  3. Is Gender Equality a Myth?
  4. Pros and Cons of Globalization for Pakistan
  5. Islamophobia: Causes and Consequences
  6. Artificial intelligence: Its Merits and Demerits
  7. IMF Bailouts: Roads to Stability or Recipes for Disaster
  8. Can Foreign Aid Help A Country Achieve Economic Stability?
  9. Consequences of American Withdrawal from Afghanistan on South Asia
  10. Money And Success Do Not Change People; They Merely Amplify What Is Already There
  11. Almost Always, The Creative, Dedicated Minority Has Made The World Better

Articles Might Interest You!

Why Do Most CSS, PMS Aspirants Fail Exams?
How Much Is English Important for CSS, PMS Aspirants?
Best CSS and PMS English Essay and Precis Teacher in Pakistan
High-Frequency Words for CSS, PMS Aspirants
CSS Solved Pakistan Affairs Past Papers 
CSS Solved General Science and Ability Past Papers 
CSS Solved Sentence Corrections with Explanations by Sir Kazim
100 Must-Read Essays and CSS Solved Past Paper Questions
How Did I Prepare and Qualify for the PMS Essays and Precis Papers?
Share Via
Recent Posts


Education Company


Welcome to Cssprepforum, Pakistan’s largest learning management system (LMS) with millions of questions along with their logical explanations educating millions of learners, students, aspirants, teachers, professors, and parents preparing for a successful future. 

Founder: Syed Kazim Ali
Founded: 2020
Phone: +92-332-6105-842
Students Served: 10 Million
Daily Learners: 50,000
Offered Courses: Visit Courses  

More Courses

RS 7000
3 Weeks


RS 15000
Extensive English Essay & Precis Course for CSS
4 Weeks


RS 15000
2 Weeks


error: Content is protected !!