Analyze the determinants of Pakistan’s foreign policy? | Best for CSS, PMS Current Affairs, Pakistan Affairs, and Essay Papers
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The most critical factors shaping Pakistan’s foreign policy are none other than its Ideology, geo-strategic location, Kashmir cause, and economic interests. These determinants significantly set the ground for Pakistan’s interaction with other countries and international organizations.
What are the significant determinants of Pakistan’s foreign policy?
- Ideology of Pakistan
- Kashmir cause
- Islamic identity
- Economic compulsions
Answer to the Question
A country’s foreign policy largely depends on certain factors, like geography and Ideology. Notably, those factors dictate the country’s interactions and relationships with other countries, and their priority and nature vary from country to country depending on different internal and external parameters. In the case of Pakistan, its foreign policy also revolves around specific determinants, including Pakistan’s Ideology, Kashmir issue, Islamic identity, economic compulsion, etc. Since its inception, Pakistan has seen ups and downs in its relationship with global powers, like USA and Russia, and its neighbouring countries. Undoubtedly, Pakistan’s foreign policy determinants play a vital role in shaping those relationships. For instance, due to its Ideology, Pakistan always pursues good relationships with other countries and condemns hostile nations, like Israel and India. In the same fashion, each determinant has a certain impact on Pakistan’s foreign policy. This question examines the major determinates of Pakistan’s foreign policy.
One of the prominent determinants of Pakistan’s foreign policy is its historically renowned Ideology. Notably, the Ideology of Pakistan finds its roots in the values and teachings of Islam. Consequently, the peaceful nature of Islam makes it essential for Pakistan to build friendly relations with other countries and work for global peace and harmony. Also, it compels Pakistan to never take side with an oppressor state or entity, which violates human rights and propagates oppression. Undoubtedly, with its foreign policy, Pakistan has set a precedent that it does not support any oppression and war crimes. For instance, in the recent past, Pakistan, despite having strong ties with Saudi Arabia, has not accepted to participate in the Saudi led Yemen war as it does not match her ideological basis. Similarly, in the case of the Russia- Ukraine war, Pakistan has avoided taking the side of global powers. Instead, it has emphasized both sides find a peaceful solution that can bring peace to the region.
Our objective should be peace within and peace without. We want to live peacefully and maintain cordial and friendly relations with our immediate neighbours and the world. We have no aggressive design against anyone. We stand by the United Nations Charter and will gladly contribute to the peace and prosperity of the world.
(Quaid-e- Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah)
Apart from Ideology, the Kashmir cause plays a significant role in Pakistan’s international affairs. Pakistan believes Kashmir is its jugular vein; due to it, Pakistan and India have not shared good relations and have even fought three wars. Pakistan believes that Kashmir is an integral part that India occupied forcefully. Because of the Kashmir issue, Pakistan aligned itself with America in the 1950s to meet its economic and security needs. Furthermore, Pakistan, being an Islamic state, emphasizes brotherly relations with other Muslim countries. And as a member of the Islamic world, it enjoys an essential position in the Muslim world. Also, due to Pakistan’s political and military situation, Muslim countries look towards Pakistan to play its role in promoting harmony among the Muslim world. And Pakistan enjoys good relations with each Muslim country and always tries to mediate the tension between the counties. Thus, Pakistan’s Islamic identity plays a vital role in Pakistan’s foreign policy.
Likewise, the Geography of a country also plays a vital role in its foreign policy. In the case of Pakistan, its geo-strategically location makes it one of the most important countries in the world. Global powers like China and Russia and land-locked central Asian republics (CARs) want to take benefit from Pakistan’s hot water ports. On the other hand, America conceives China as a threat to its superpower status, and it backs India in the region to counterbalance China’s growing influence. Therefore, because of its important position, Pakistan has to adjust its relations with these countries. Moreover, Pakistan’s bad economic situation also affects Pakistan’s foreign policy. Due to its dwindling economy, Pakistan has to build close relations with developed countries and international organizations, like World Bank and IMF. Shockingly, Pakistan is one of those countries that has taken a lot of loans from developed countries and international organizations. For this reason, these powers and organizations often try to influence Pakistan’s foreign policy. Thus, the economic situation of Pakistan impacts Pakistan’s foreign policy.
If you know a country’s geography, you can understand and predict its foreign policy.
To analyze critically, since the inception of Pakistan, the country has made and broken its relations with other countries based on its Ideology, Islamic status, and economic situation. Undoubtedly, all determinates have played their specific role in shaping the relations of Pakistan with the outer world.
To conclude, the corporation among the states plays a significant role in their progress as no country can survive or thrive alone without building outer connections in today’s world. And these relationships between the states and global institutions are determined by certain elements, such as geography and economy. Similarly, in the case of Pakistan, its foreign policy is also determined by certain factors, including its Ideology, geo-location, Islamic identity, and economic condition. Therefore, the desire of Pakistan to progress is linked to its foreign policy, which revolves around the detainments of her foreign policy.
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