What are the major provisions of the Simla Agreement (1972) between Pakistan and India? How was it helpful for the establishment of durable peace in the region? | Best for CSS, PMS Current Affairs, Pakistan Affairs, and Essay Papers
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Several provisions, despite multiple problems, have been signed between Pakistan and India on 2nd July 1972 known as the Simla agreement. However, the major provisions in the agreement are mainly the settlement of differences through bilateral agreements and the imposition of ban on the unilateral alteration of the line of control in Jammu and Kashmir.
- The political instability in the East Pakistan
- The East Pakistan liberation war of 1971
- The surrender of Pakistani army
The major provisions of Simla agreement (1972)
- The obedience of the United Nations resolutions
- The settlement of differences through bilateral agreements
- The restoration of territories
- The ban on unilateral alteration of the line of control in Jammu and Kashmir
The establishment of durable peace through Simla agreement
- The maintenance and promotion of communications
- The prohibition of propaganda war against each other
- The withdrawal of forces to their own territories
Answer to the Question
Several provisions, despite multiple problems, have been signed between Pakistan and India on 2nd July 1972 known as the Simla agreement. However, the major provisions in the agreement are mainly the settlement of differences through bilateral agreements and the imposition of a ban on the unilateral alteration of the line of control in Jammu and Kashmir. It is an evident fact that it has not only compensated for the war of 1971 but also promoted diplomatic relations between the concerned states to a large extent. Adding more to it, the agreement has helped the nations in the establishment of peace through the maintenance and promotion of communications, along with the prohibition of the propaganda war against one another, and the withdrawal of forces from other states. Thus, the Simla accord holds great importance in the establishment and promulgation of peace in both countries. The question under discussion throws light upon the important provisions of the Simla agreement and their role in maintaining peace in the region.
On August 14, 1947, Pakistan got independence with two separate wings-the East and West Pakistan. However, East Pakistan due to multiple factors was relatively unstable both politically and economically. Consequently, the differences in both wings led to the insurgency in East Pakistan against the leaders and the army of West Pakistan through Bangladesh Liberation Army (BLA) under the leadership of Mufti Mujeeb Ur Rehman. The movement was, indeed, supported by the Indian government and succeeded in separating East Pakistan now known as Bangladesh- as an independent state. In this war, nearly 93000 Pakistani soldiers were captured by the Indian government making them prisoners of war. Thus, the situation was completely against Pakistan.
There are a number of provisions in the Simla agreement. Nonetheless, three of them are undeniably important for the maintenance of peace, prosperity, and, indeed, stability of the nations. First, both the states have to work and take steps within the resolutions of the United Nations (UNs) passed at different intervals for the maintenance of peace in the region, like the UN resolutions thirty-ninth, and forty-seven. Second, the differences, hurdles, and problems between the two states have to be resolved through bilateral negotiations, i.e., a third party, such as the United States of America or any other powerful state, must not interfere in their affairs. Third, the land and territory occupied during the war have to be restored and handed over to their parent countries immediately. Thus, the above-mentioned provisions hold prime importance in the Simla agreement.
The Simla agreement is critically important for the establishment of durable peace and stability in the states- of Pakistan and India. It had not only promoted communication but had also established a number of trades between them. Moreover, the masses of the nation, with the help of communication, can interact freely with one another and can share their feelings, a major contributor to the management of trade and all other types of relations. Similarly, the agreement ensured the stoppage of the propaganda war against each other as propaganda is a major cause of instability both socially and politically. And the withdrawal of forces from the captured areas is another step toward the establishment of peace in the region, for the maintenance of peace and stability of a nation is only possible in the absence of foreigners. Thus, the Simla agreement is helpful for the maintenance of peace in both Pakistan and India.
In a nutshell, the Shimla agreement was signed between Pakistan and India in 1972 with a number of provisions. However, the important provisions in the Simla agreement were obedience to the United Nations resolutions, the settlement of differences through bilateral agreements, and, above all, the restoration of territories. These provisions were very important for both Pakistan and India as the maintenance and promotion of communication and the withdrawal of forces to their respective countries became the real cause of peace and prosperity for the states.
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