National disintegration in Pakistan: causes, impacts, and solutions

National disintegration in Pakistan causes, impacts, and solutions

National disintegration in Pakistan: causes, impacts, and solutions | Best for CSS, PMS Current Affairs, Pakistan Affairs, and Essay Papers

The answer is solved on the given pattern, which Sir Syed Kazim Ali teaches to his students, who consistently score the maximum because of their attempting the questions. The content is based on historical facts taught by Miss Nirmal Hasni, current affairs coach and Sir Rameez Ch Pakistan Affairs coach helping aspirants for years.



National disintegration wreaks havoc in Pakistan regarding ethnic clashes, socio-economic disparities, and exclusion of religious minorities due to the over-centralization of power, leadership crisis, and apartheid education. To promote national integration in the country by following the true essence of the federation, giving quality education, and building a national narrative, Pakistan can become a place of worth living.

What is national integration?

Current scenario of national disintegration in Pakistan

Effects of national disintegration in Pakistan

  • Enlarging socio-economic disparities
  • Increasing ethnic and sectarian polarization
  • Enhancing exclusion of religious minorities
  • Giving birth to the insurgency in Balochistan
  • Instigating scourge of terrorism and extremism

Causes of national disintegration in Pakistan

  • The presence of over-centralization
  • The crisis of leadership
  • The existence of apartheid education
  • The presence of strong feudal culture
  • The issue of Indian involvement in some provinces

Way forward for national disintegration in Pakistan 

  • To follow federation in true essence
  • To provide quality education
  • To ensure good governance
  • To bring nationalistic leadership of small provinces into mainstream
  • To build a national narrative
  • To create new provinces
  • To disbanded feudalism

Critical analysis


Answer to the Question


Collectivism rather than individualism is the success formula of developed nations. The citizens of these countries sacrifice their motives for the sake of national interests. Nonetheless, Pakistan, being a developing country, lacks the spirit of national cohesion. Since its inception, Pakistan has seen significant incidents of national disintegration, and the fall of Dacca is the most pertinent example in this regard. Even after seventy-five years of independence, Pakistan is still missing the element of national integration on its land. Shaking the foundation of the state, this very phenomenon instigates many other issues in the country, such as ethnic divide, socio-economic inequalities, and insurgency in Balochistan. However, national disintegration is the outcome of many reasons like over-centralization, leadership crisis, and apartheid education. Therefore, Pakistan has to take some radical steps in resolving the issue of national disintegration amicably, and it should give a strong national narrative to its people.

“No one can undermine national unity.”

Ivica Dacic

What is national integration?

The process of achieving national cohesion and feeling united as a nation is known as national integration. The philosophy of national integration ensures that all stakeholders must be on one page, especially when the issue is related to national importance. So, for this reason, both leadership and citizens of a country have to overlook their personal interests for ensuring the national sovereignty, security, and independence of a country. Thus, Pakistan should also promote a feeling of national integration among its people for the sake of its survival and development.  

Current scenario of national disintegration in Pakistan

National disintegration at its climax on the land of pure. Since its inception, only a small portion of the elite class has been controlling eighty per cent of resources. This small band of corrupt groups comprises feudal lords, industrialists, generals, and mullahs in civilian and military bureaucracy. That is why they try to exclude competitors from decision-making processes related to economic, social, and political affairs. Therefore, a sense of exclusion is created among different ethnic groups of Pakistan. Thus, national disintegration enhances the vulnerability of Pakistan among the community of nations.

Stay with us, please remain in this country and constitute a nation based on national unity.”

Robert Mugabe

Impacts of national disintegration in Pakistan

National disintegration has impacted Pakistan in several ways. In the first place, it has enlarged the socio-economic inequalities in the country. Only a small chunk of society enjoys more than seventy per cent of health, education, and business resources. Consequently, many masses have been left at the mercy of their fate. Besides, ethnic and sectarian polarization has divided people into different groups and created a sense of hatred and animosity among them. Moreover, the absence of national integration has done more harm to religious minorities. They feel insecure in Pakistan, which is why many of them migrated to other countries. Lastly, insurgency in Balochistan and the scourge of terrorism and extremism all over Pakistan have further shaken the foundation of Pakistan. Hence, Pakistan has to create a feeling of national integration to make its citizens united and patriotic.

“We must all built national unity, build all revolutionary forces, into one powerful wave to sweep away our main enemy, political imperialism and economic imperialism.”


Causes of national disintegration in Pakistan

A lot of reasons are instigating the issue of national disintegration in Pakistan. First of all, the over-centralized form of government creates resentment among the people of federating units against the state. Even after the 18th amendment, Provinces are not enjoying full autonomy in their internal affairs. Secondly, the leadership crisis is another reason that adds fuel to the injury. After the demise of Quaid e Azam, not a single leader has played a productive role in creating cohesion among the citizens. Thirdly, the presence of apartheid education creates a difference between citizens of Pakistan. A very small number of students have access to quality education in the country. Fourthly, strong feudal culture dominates a country’s entire decision-making process, and they do not give space to other competitors to take part in political and economic affairs. Lastly, Indian involvement in Balochistan and KPK is the foremost reason behind the national disintegration of the country.

“Winning or losing of the election is less important than strengthening the country.”

Indira Gandhi

Way forward

National integration is indispensable for the peaceful environment of a nation. Therefore, Pakistan has to take some radical measures in doing away with national disintegration. First of all, the federation must be ensured in the country; and authority should be equally divided between the centre and the provinces. Moreover, quality education must be provided to every child in society. The syllabus and curriculum should be based on neutral information so that minorities cannot feel any insecurity. Good governance, furthermore, has to be maintained at all costs if Pakistan wants to remove the grievances of small provinces. Moving ahead, nationalist leadership of small provinces should be invited to the decision-making process to preserve their interest properly.

Besides, a national narrative through social institutions like education, media and religion should be built to inculcate a sense of oneness in the minds of every citizen. Apart from it, new provinces on an administrative basis, should be created in the country and, consequently, remove the people’s grievances. Lastly, feudalism should be disbanded in Pakistan and thus, an inclusive and participatory political system should be introduced on the land of pure.

“All such divisive policies are detrimental to national unity and integration.”

L.K. Advani

Critical analysis 

A country cannot stand united against its challenges in the presence of national disintegration. People in such countries prefer their own interests based on ethnic grounds. Therefore, a sense of exclusion exists among the masses, which leads the country towards destruction. Hence, national integration is essential for Pakistan to turn its multi-ethnic groups into one nation.


To conclude, national disintegration can make Pakistan vulnerable among the community of nations giving birth to many issues which are detrimental to its very existence. Strong centralization, parallel education, and leadership lack can transform Pakistan into a failed state. Therefore, Pakistan should nurture a feeling of national integration by satisfying the demands and removing the grievance of its people. In this way, Pakistan can become a place of worth living.  

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