It is a solved past paper of CSS Everyday Science 1986 (CSS GSA Solved Paper 1986). I have written all the answers briefly to help students score maximum marks. In this paper, I have answered each of the questions according to the requirements set by the Federal Public Service Commission (FPSC). It should be noted that students who write extra and un-necessary information are not awarded extra marks. So, always try to write answers briefly and precisely. Nowadays, GSA paper contains 20 MCQs. To score 20 marks, try covering all of the MCQs available at Howfiv website (EDS MCQs & GSA Past Papers) because 17 to 18 MCQs are asked straight from the website for years.
Question – 1:
What are the main constituents of China Clay?
China clay is white soft clay; it is an essential ingredient in making paper, rubber, paint, and many other products. It is mined from the Kao-ling hill, located in China, for centuries. It is also called kaolin.
Kaolin, also called china clay, soft white clay that is an essential ingredient in the manufacture of china and porcelain and is widely used in the making of paper, rubber, paint, and many other products. Kaolin is named after the hill in China (Kao-ling) from which it was mined for centuries.
Main constituents of China Clay:
The main constituents of china clay are given as follows:
Silica, Alumina, Magnesia, Potassium, Sodium, Calcium, and water are the main constituents of China Clay.
Question – 2:
What are the effects of the deficiency of the following nutrients in the human body? Iron, Iodine, Fluorine, Vitamin A, Vitamin B, Vitamin C, Vitamin D. Answer any five?
The effects of the deficiency of the following nutrients in the human body are given as follows:
Iron: The deficiency of iron in the human body causes:
- Shortage of breath
Iodine: The deficiency of iodine in the human body causes:
- Hinders mental and physical growth
- Body dries up
- Skin thickens
- Face gets wrinkle
- Enlarge thyroid glands
Fluorine: The deficiency of fluorine in the human body causes:
- Breakdown of dental tissues
- Decrease in bone mass
Vitamin A: The deficiency of vitamin A in the human body causes:
- Inflamed skin.
- Night blindness
- Delayed growth
- Respiratory infections
Vitamin B: The deficiency of vitamin B in the human body causes:
- Skin rashes
- Compromised immune system
- Beriberi disease
Vitamin C: The deficiency of vitamin C in the human body causes:
- Inflammation of the gums
- Small red or purple spots on the skin
- Joint pain
- Corkscrew hair
Vitamin D: The deficiency of vitamin D in the human body causes:
- Loss of bone density
- In children, it can cause rickets
- Bones become hollow and distorted
These are the effects of the deficiency of the following nutrients in the human body.
Question – 3:
Define Ultrasonic Waves. What are some uses of Ultrasonic Waves?
Ultrasonic waves: Sound is transferred from one medium to another in the form of waves. A human can hear the sound wave whose frequency ranges from 20Hz to 20k Hz. The sound waves whose frequency is more than 20k Hz is not audible by human beings are called Ultrasonic waves.
Uses of Ultrasonic Waves: Uses of ultrasonic waves are defined hereunder.
- It is used to detect the objects.
- It is used to measure the distance.
- Ultrasound imaging is used in medicine, which is called sonography.
- It is also used to detect invisible flaws in casting, drilling, glass, and ceramics, etc.
Question – 4:
Name the raw material used in the manufacture of Plastic. What are the two well-known types of plastics? Give at least two important properties of plastic?
Raw material of Plastic:
The raw material of plastic includes ethane, which is an unsaturated hydrocarbon, polythene, and oxygen. To make plastic, ethane is polymerized to polythene by mixing the required amount of oxygen in it. It is then heated at 1000°C and plastic is formed.
Types of Plastics:
Two well-known types of plastics are given below:
The Bakelite plastics are an early form of brittle plastic, usually dark brown, made up of formaldehyde and phenol. They are chiefly used for electrical equipment.
Polystyrene is a synthetic aromatic hydrocarbon polymer made from the monomer known as styrene. Polystyrene can be solid or foamed.
Properties of Plastic: Plastics are:
- Easy to manufacture
- Electrically and thermally insulated
- Resistant to shock, chemicals, and water
- Available at low cost
These are few properties of the plastics.
Question – 5:
What is common cause of Heart attack?
Oxygen and food, which are essential for the survival of human being, are supplied to the heart by the coronary system. If one of the arteries, which supplies oxygen and food to the heart, is blocked due to coronary heart disease, it stops the flow of blood to the heart. In coronary disease, the cholesterol and other substances (Plaque) collect in the arteries that cause the blockage of blood flow as shown in the figure.
Due to obstruction in blood flow, it causes the heart attack. If the blockage remains for a long time, the person’s heart stops working and he dies. If the damage is manageable, the person gets a heart attack but is able to survive after proper treatment. Thus, the most common cause of a heart attack. is the blockage of the blood flow.
Question – 6:
In what units the following can be measured? Answer any five? Force, Temperature, Current, Heat, Pressure, Radioactivity, and Atomic Energy.
Answer: The units for the following quantities are given below:
|Atomic Energy||Joule (J)|
These are the appropriate units with their symbols to measure the given quantities.
Question – 7:
What parts of the human body secrets the following enzymes? Give one important function of each:
- ) Amylase (2) Pepsin (3) Trypsin
(4) Lipase (5) Sucrose
The well-defined parts of the human body, secrets to the respective enzymes, and their functions are tabulated below.
|Enzyme||Human Body Part||Function of enzyme|
|Amylase||Pancreas||It breaks down the starch molecules and converts them into sugar.|
|Pepsin||Stomach||It helps to break down the protein into polypeptides and peptones.|
|Trypsin||Pancreas||It breaks down the protein and helps human body to digest it.|
|Lipase||Pancreas, Mouth, and Stomach||It breaks down the fats present in the food.|
|Sucrose||Small intestine||It converts sucrose into its subunits fructose and glucose.|
Thus, this is the well-defined table elaborating the function of each enzyme.
Question – 8:
Mention five applications of Laser?
The term “laser” is an acronym of “light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation”. A laser is a device that emits light through a mechanism of optical amplification.
Applications of Laser:
A few applications of laser are given below:
- It is used in medicine for bloodless surgery, to destroy kidney stones, in cancer therapy, and to detect ulcer in in the intestine, etc.
- It is used in underwater communication, optical fiber communication, and space communication.
- It is used to cut glass in the industries.
- It helps to count the number of atoms in a substance.
- It is also used to detect earthquakes and underwater nuclear blasts.
These are the applications of laser.
Question – 9:
Name the field of the following scientists.
Jabir Ibn Hayyan, Ibnal Haithum, Abu rehan al beruni, Ibn Sina, Al-Khawarzini, Abu Bakar Zakaraiyya Razi, Ibn Baitar, and Abu Qasim Zahravi.
Answer: The field of the given scientists is tabulated hereunder.
|Jabir Ibn Hayyan||Chemistry|
|Abu rehan al beruni||Mathematician, Astronomer, Historian|
|Ibn Sina||Medicine, Psychology, Pharmacology , Geology, Physics, Astronomy, Chemistry, Philosophy|
|Al-Khawarzini||Mathematician, Astronomer, Astrologer Geographer, Scholar|
|Abu Bakar Zakaraiyya Razi||Philosophy, Psychology|
|Ibn Baitar||Botany, Pharmacist|
|Abu Qasim Zahravi||Physician, Surgeon, Chemist|
These are the fields of the given scientists in which they played remarkable role.
Question – 10:
What do you mean by the term RADAR? Explain its working?
RADAR is an acronym of “Radio Detecting and Ranging”. It deals with the use of radio waves. It is used to determine the angle, range, and velocity of the objects. It radiated energy in the space and monitors the objects with the help of reflected signals.
Working of Radar:
RADAR sends the electromagnetic waves towards the object. It strikes to the object present in the path and scattered back in the form of energy to the RADAR. It works the same as the principal of echo. For example, if a person shouts in a hollow room, he will be able to listen to his voice after some interval of time. His voice reflects back and it is called echo. In the same way, waves reflect back and RADAR is able to detect the precipitation. It is also called the electric echo. Electromagnetic waves in radar always travel in a straight line having a speed of light 3×108m/s. This is how RADAR works.
Question – 11:
Name the six important elements which form 99% of the human body?
Answer: Six important elements that form 99% of the human body are:
Thus, these are the elements that made 99% of the human body.
Question – 12:
Define the following.
Chain Reaction, Critical mass, Fission, Fusion, and Reactor.
- Chain Reaction:
Chain reaction is a continuous energy releasing reaction. In which, nucleus of the U-235 is bombarded with a neutron and splits into two nuclei as shown in the figure.
Now, the split-ted nuclei initiate other fission reactions. Each of the nuclei is bombarded with more neutrons and splits into 4 nuclei with the release in four more neutrons and energy. So, by this continuous collision chain reaction is sustained. The production of too many neutrons may cause an explosion.
- Critical mass:
The amount of fissile material, which is required to sustain a nuclear chain reaction, is known as critical mass. The critical mass of the fissile material depends upon its nuclear properties; such as shape, density, purity, and temperature, etc.
The process in which one heavy nucleus is breakdown into two small nuclei is called nuclear fission reaction, and the amount of energy obtained by this process is called nuclear fission energy.
In a nuclear fission reaction, the nucleus of the Uranium is used for bombardment. The nucleus is bombarded with a neutron, which breakdown the nucleus into two smaller nuclei. The amount of energy, 200MeV, is released in each fission reaction. Most of the energy released in the process is converted into heat, which is later used in a nuclear power plant to generate steam. When Uranium-235 is bombarded with a neutron, it is broken down into Barium and Krypton and two more neutrons with the release in energy.
Chemical equation of nuclear fission reaction is given below:
92U235+ 1n1 → 56Ba144+36Kr90+2n1+ Energy
This is how nuclear fission reaction is sustained.
The process in which two nuclei combine to form a nucleus with the release in energy is called Fusion reaction. In nuclear fusion reaction, two nuclei of hydrogen combine to form helium nuclei (He3) as shown in the figure.
A large amount of heat is released during this process due to difference between atoms of hydrogen and helium with the release of neutron. A very high amount of temperature is required to start this process. This is the reason that it cannot be sustained on the earth. It takes place on sun because of its high temperature. If nuclear fusion reaction can be carried out at earth then it will be very cheap and pollution free way to generate energy.
Chemical equation of nuclear fusion reaction is given below:
1H2+ 1H2 → 2He3+0n1+ Energy
This is how nuclear fusion reaction is sustained.
In a nuclear reactor, the process of nuclear fission takes place. After bombardment of neutron, the amount of energy is released in the form of heat. In the boiler of nuclear reactor, the released heat energy is used to heating water. After few minutes, the water starts boiling. When the water is boiled, it produces steam as shown in the figure.
The amount of steam produced in a nuclear reactor is used to running huge turbines, which helps in generating electricity.
Question – 13:
Name the important sources of energy used in the industries in Pakistan. What other alternative sources of energy can be used in the industry?
There is a lot of energy sources used to generate energy in the industries in Pakistan. It includes conventional and non-conventional sources to generate energy. They are named as:
These are the important sources – consist of fossil fuels and renewable energy – of energy used in industries in Pakistan.
Alternative sources of energy:
According to recent research, coal and petroleum will be completely ceased within a few years. So, there are few alternative ways to generate energy, which can be used in the industries are given hereunder.
- Tidal Energy
- Geothermal Energy
- Atom derived energy
- Hydro Energy
- Biomass Energy
These are some of the alternative energy sources, which can be used in the industries to overcome the energy crisis in Pakistan.
Question – 14:
What are planets? Name the known planets.
In the solar system, the bodies revolving around the sun in an elliptical path are known as planets. Planets are non-luminous bodies as they do not have their own light. All the planets are round in shape because of their gravitational force. Planets are nine in number and all are revolving in a specific path around the sun in the solar system as shown in the figure.
Planets are classified in three main groups.
In the first groups, it contains four planets – Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. These are closer to the sun and lies in the first group.
In the second group, it also contains four planets – Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. These are at an increasing distance to the sun.
In this group, there is only one planet – Pluto – exists. It was discovered by the staff of the Lowell Observatory in 1930. It is a larger distance from the sun as compared to other planets.
These are the planets present in the solar system and this is how they are classified in three different groups.
Question – 15:
Given below is the list of scientists work (List A) and (List B) match the two.
The name of scientists with their respective work is tabulated below.
|Name of Scientist||Work|
|Watson and Crick||Structure of D.N.A|
This is the list of name of the scientists and their work.
ABOUT THE WRITER:
Miss Ambar Fiaz is an M.S Physics, and being a lecturer, she has years of experience of providing coaching on Science subjects. On the request of cssprepforum, she has agreed to solve all the CSS GSA Past Papers to let aspirants how to attempt GSA paper in the CSS exam to score the maximum. She has been providing guidance to thousands of competitive aspirants on how to attempt science papers and what to prepare.
I have decided to solve all the CSS Everyday Science (Now General Science & Ability – GSA) papers to let aspirants know how to attempt the paper to fetch up to 90 marks. GSA paper of CSS is one of the most scoring papers if an aspirant gives it a serious read. Currently, the issue that thousands of CSS aspirants face is they are just provided low-quality study materials: books & notes but are never told how to attempt the paper.MISS AMBAR SAYING
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