Islamophobia: causes and consequences

Islamophobia: Causes and Consequences | Essay for CSS, PMS

CSS Solved Past Papers | Islamophobia: causes and consequences | Best for CSS, PMS Current Affairs, Pakistan Affairs, and Essay Papers

The answer is solved by Miss Nimra Masood on the given pattern, which Sir Syed Kazim Ali teaches to his students, who consistently score the maximum because of their attempting the questions.



Current Situation


  • Clash of civilizations
  • The collusion of clergy and monarch: vested political interests
  • Lack of understanding about Islam: poor interaction levels
  • Role of media in building perceptions


  • Political Consequences
  • The rise in extremist activities
  • Collective trauma: resilience and consciousness of Muslim community
  • Socio-Economic Consequences
  • Alienation of Muslims from economic activities
  • Hatred and reaction in the Muslim world
  • Psychological Suffering
  • Victims of discrimination: psychological suffering


  • The influential role of OIC in fighting stereotypes and misconceptions
  • Role of Muslim organizations and institutions 
  • Building self-image of Islam: especially in younger generations
  • Role of media in building a positive image

Critical Analysis


Answer to the Question


Islamophobia has emerged as one of the biggest threats of the twenty-first century. From hate speech to violence, Islamophobia has challenged the core of inter-faith harmony and security. Although the phenomenon has posed more threats in the west, unfortunately, it has encompassed every corner of the world. Inexplicably, the clash of civilizations, the rise of right-wing politics, misconceptions, and, above all, the delusionary role of media have nourished the phenomenon of Islamophobia. Islamophobia has had widespread political, socio-economic, and psychological consequences for society and the Muslim community. Politically, extremist activities and collective resistance are the progeny of rising Islamophobic trends. Similarly, hatred toward the Muslim world and alienation across the Muslim community lead to socio-economic challenges. Moreover, the astounding psychological impacts like discrimination and extremism are also a threat to inter-faith harmony, stability, and prosperity. However, a series of collective and individual steps can prove effective in curbing the menace of Islamophobia. Collectively, the role of the organization of the Islamic council is the cornerstone to fight evil. Furthermore, socio-religious institutions, the role of media, and improving self-image are pivotal in eradicating Islamophobia. The question would examine the causes, consequences, and recommendations to overcome the threat of Islamophobia.

Currently, humanity has witnessed many instances of Islamophobia across the world. From the mosque attack in New Zealand to the frequent degrading cartoons, Islamophobia has been a threat. Western societies, in particular, are facing a threat more prominently than the rest of the world. Unfortunately, the Muslim states have witnessed a severe backlash to these events, especially those meant to target Islam and its messenger. Therefore, the phenomenon has emerged as the dividing line between the Muslim and Non-Muslim communities, threatening humankind’s peace, prosperity, and security. Thus, the world must develop a coherent and dynamic approach to tackle this extremist threat.

Surprisingly, there are multiple factors behind the nourishment of the threat. First and foremost, the clash of civilizations is a reality that has given birth to many insecurities and hurdles among societies—sociologists like Samuel. P. Huntington has given a detailed analysis of Western societies resisting other cultures and values. For example, Islam is a religion that possesses its own culture and belief system that, currently, is in direct confrontation with western values. Moreover, western societies have also prioritized national interests; meanwhile, Islam believes in the concept of Pan-Islamism. Therefore, the clash of civilizations is one of the core reasons behind the rising threat of Islamophobia.

Moreover, the collusion of clergy and politics is another reason that flares the menace of Islamophobia. Across many western countries, politicians have used the phenomenon to achieve their vested political interests. It is a fact that right-wing politics has been on the rise in different parts of the world; hence, they have used Islamophobia as a tool to arouse public sentiments. According to different media reports, after the 9/11 attack, Islamophobia was at its peak during the 2008 election in the United States. Thus the convergence of clergy and monarchs has been a stimulator for the Islamophobic trends.

Another crucial factor contributing to the menace of Islamophobia is the misconceptions and lack of understanding about Islam. Without a doubt, Muslims have conducted many terrorist activities. However, it does not portray the true picture of Islam. Non-Muslims have built stereotypes based on the isolated incidents that took place. According to a report published by Gallup survey, Sixty-four per cent of people in the west denounced Islam; nonetheless, less than half of them had ever interacted with a Muslim. Henceforth, poor interaction and stereotypes have played their role in the growth of Islamophobia.

Finally, the media has also acted as a catalyst in expanding the evil of Islamophobia across the globe. Unfortunately, the media has glamorized and moulded extremist activities in such a way that it builds stereotypes in the masses. The media has the power to shape social values, and it has done so to satisfy the interests of politicians and clergy. Ironically, media has filtered and shaped information in a way that has aggravated the Islamophobic trends. There are a lot of misconceptions about Islam that have led to Islamophobia; abysmally, the media has a significant role in reaffirming these stereotypes. Therefore, many factors have contributed to making Islamophobia a global challenge that has had severe repercussions for society, especially Muslims.

Sorrowfully, Islamophobia has a number of consequences for Muslims in particular and society in general. It is a fact that Islamophobia has left a significant mark on the political outlook. Surprisingly, Islamophobia has forced the Muslim community into a sense of alienation and discrimination. Therefore, there has a significant surge in extremist activities by the Muslim community. Furthermore, it has also resulted in collective trauma, forcing the community as a whole to resist. Recent Hijab row in France and events alike are evident examples of rising Muslim consciousness. Thus, societies are facing considerable political impacts of Islamophobia.

Ironically, Islamophobia has also left its mark on the socio-economic sphere of society. While Muslims in the west have struggled in the economic sphere on many occasions, inopportunely, it is the Muslim world that has resented. From a series of protests to social hatred towards the Non-Muslim world, Muslims have reacted staunchly to every event of Islamophobia. A series of protests and demands to oust the French ambassador from Pakistan are a few examples of society’s reaction toward Islamophobia. On the other side, Muslims in the west have been economically alienated, adding to the rise in extremist activities.

Strangely, most severe and long-lasting are the psychological consequences that shatter the very foundation of society. Realistically, racial discrimination and alienation are impetus to the terrorist activities that take place. Interestingly, it is Islamophobia that has sowed the seeds for this racial discrimination and a sense of alienation in the Muslim communities. According to sociologists like Charles Darwin, man is a social animal and cannot survive in alienation. Thus, alienation and discrimination have a far-reaching impact on the psychological well being of the individuals. Nonetheless, a series of proactive and holistic steps can help overcome the menace of Islamophobia.

Thankfully, Muslims have a unanimous platform in the form of the Organization of Islamic Council. The organization can play a pivotal role in overcoming the challenge of Islamophobia. Recently, the efforts of OIC to convince the United Nations about Islamophobia and acknowledge the 15th march as an international day against the phenomenon are symbolic. However, the Muslim world must react proactively to counter misconceptions and stereotypes that breed Islamophobia. Moreover, the platform of the United Nations and foreign policy are also useful tools in fighting the threat. The organization comprises more than fifty countries and a plethora of financial and human resources to fight this threat. Awareness campaigns, documentaries, and films can play a noteworthy role in diminishing the Islamophobic thoughts of people worldwide.

Surprisingly, Muslims have many state-owned and private institutions that can play their part. Islamophobia is a threat that requires collective efforts from the Muslim community. Initiatives in educational institutions, workshops, and seminars are an effective way to impart education. Furthermore, institutions must discourage any extremist or terrorist mindset within the Muslim community. Moreover, Muslim social service organizations have a role to play in this regard to fight stereotypes and conceptions. Thus, credible institutions and organizations can help heaps and bounds in fighting the threat.

Similarly, individuals have a mammoth part in overcoming stereotypes and misconceptions. Realistically, violent reactions, terrorist activities, and militancy can do no good for the betterment of the Muslim community. Therefore, Muslims as individuals can play a role that no other factor can do. Truthfully, Islam is a religion of peace, patience, and tolerance. However, Muslims have failed in following the path laid by Islam. Moreover, the young generation can play a pivotal role as they are the role models of moderate Islam who could help build back the real image of Islam. Hence, building back the peaceful image of Islam at the individual level is the crux of fighting Islamophobia.

Lastly, the media has a fate-turning responsibility in overcoming the barrier of Islamophobia. Although media has contributed massively to making Islamophobia a daemon for society, surprisingly, it can play an even substantial role in overcoming this evil. Likewise, social media has a particular role in countering propaganda, stereotypes, and misconceptions. In today’s digital age, media is a gatekeeper to monitor and mold information to build perceptions and beliefs. To conclude, media and other factors can prove influential in curbing the menace of Islamophobia.

Despicably, Islamophobia has emerged as an enormous threat to the masses’ peace, stability, and security. Islamophobia has rattled society from its very foundation, influencing the political, socio-economic, and, above all, the psychological outlook of the masses. Islamophobia has blossomed under stereotypes, misconceptions, clash of civilizations, and biased role of media. Nonetheless, a few pragmatic and holistic steps can help the Muslim world restore its lost glory. Therefore, it is a fact that the world must respond drastically to the daemon before it turns into a monster. Hence, Islamophobia is a direct threat to the survival of the Muslim community and retaining of past glory.

To conclude, Islamophobia is a threat to society and the Muslim community. Either in the form of hate speech, violence, or any other, Islamophobia directly targets the sentiments and beliefs of the Muslim community. Poor interaction, the unprecedented role of media, and individual misconceptions have nourished the evil of Islamophobia. Appallingly, Islamophobia has had a far-reaching impact on society and its integration across the globe-especially the western world. However, the Muslim world- particularly- under the umbrella of OIC has the potential and resources to fight this evil. Moreover, states and individuals must also take initiatives to curb this evil for the masses’ stability, integration, and security. To say the least, collective and individual efforts are required at a drastic pace to secure the future of humanity.

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