Discuss the features of the political culture of Pakistan. CSS Pakistan Affairs Solved Paper 2020 | CSS Pakistan Affairs Solved Past Papers by Cssprepforum | FPSC Solved Past Papers
The following question of CSS Pakistan Affairs 2020 is solved by Laraib Rafique Rai under the supervision of Miss Nirmal Hasni. She learnt how to attempt 20 marks question and essay writing from Sir Syed Kazim Ali, Pakistan’s best CSS and PMS English essay and precis teacher with the highest success rate of his students. This solved past paper question is attempted on the pattern taught by Sir to his students, scoring the highest marks in compulsory and optional subjects for years, and uploaded to help aspirants understand how to crack a topic or question, how to write relevantly, what coherence is, and how to include and connect ideas, opinions, and suggestions to score the maximum.
In this question, the examiner demands from you briefly describe the salient features of Pakistan’s political culture. So, you are required to take a stance and prove it by the end of your question. Along with this, you have to write the current scenario after the introduction. Maintaining brevity, along with proper articulation and relevance, would help the aspirants fetch the maximum number.
Despite having been filtered through the sieve of constitutional evolution, the salient attributes of Pakistan’s political culture are a mirror reflection of the predecessor British legacy.
2- An overview of the current scenario of Pakistan’s political culture
- Aggressive politics
- Blame games of politicians
- Power lust overpowering national interest
3- Salient features of Pakistan’s political culture
- Dynastic politics and aristocratic influence
- Institutional imbalance and centralization of power
- Weak opposition and passive public participation
4- Critical Analysis
Despite having been filtered through the sieve of constitutional evolution, the salient attributes of Pakistan’s political culture are a mirror reflection of the predecessor British legacy. Unlike other British colonies that soon after independence got themselves out from the bulwark of colonialism to become a stable polity, Pakistan’s political culture remains conflictual rather than consensual. It is saddening to note that Pakistan’s political culture is an amalgamation of many factors: dynastic politics, aristocracy, institutional inequality, weak opposition, and passive public participation, making it more prone to undemocratic forces holding the reign. For these reasons, since its inception, the land of pure has fallen into the quagmire of undemocratic practices, further hampering the country’s political, social, and economic upswing. Currently, Pakistan’s political culture has turned aggressive. Instead of working for the country’s betterment, politicians are often seen playing blame games on their counterparts. In brief, the power lust of politicians has overpowered the country’s national interest. However, united efforts on government, opposition, and public parts are indispensable to root out all undemocratic traits to make the country’s political culture consensual. This answer comprehensively discusses Pakistan’s political culture and the best available suggestions to strengthen civilian rule.
“It is only with United effort and faith in our destiny that we shall be able to translate the Pakistan of our dreams into reality.”
(Quaid-e- Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah)
A dynastic succession of political leadership is a common feature of Pakistan’s political culture since its creation. Instead of commencing a genuinely democratic way of selecting an administrator, every political party passes the rule to their beneficiaries, which is a prominent trait of the British Monarchy. There are multiple examples of such a case; whether it is Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) or the Pakistan Muslim League (N), every party works on the same agenda. It is one of the reasons behind the country’s least political growth for decades. Furthermore, this aspect of Pakistan’s political culture has also stigmatised political leadership’s efficiency.
On the one hand, many untrained people get free access to critical political positions; on the other hand, the deserving ones stay far out from mainstream politics. Nonetheless, power thirst overpowers the national interests in Pakistan. Notwithstanding, to facilitate a genuinely democratic political culture in the country, these practices need to be addressed at the grassroots level. In addition, the selection of public representatives based on a fair electoral process is mandatory for the proper functioning of democracy in the country.
In the same manner, aristocrats have influenced Pakistan’s political culture more exhaustively than any other element. By feudalists and industrialists, power politics has been seen to be part and parcel of the country’s political culture. It is the case when society’s elite faction, according to their whims and wishes, manipulates the constitutional laws; they leave a power vacuum for undemocratic elements. Not only this but politicians and bureaucrats also become puppets in the hands of the aristocrats for maximum benefits. Unfortunately, in Pakistan, the balance of justice also inclines towards money and power. In actual practice, however, Pakistan’s political culture oscillates between democratic ideals and aristocratic reality. The prevailing corrupt practices in the country, including undue political favours, lack of justice, tax evasion, money laundering, nepotism, and bribery, present anecdotes of the country’s spoiled political culture due to the vicious cycle of power politics. Thenceforth, it is unavoidable for the state to eradicate all such pursuits to make the country’s political culture robust.
The institutional imbalance is another most authoritative feature of the country’s political culture. Two institutions: military and Bureaucracy, being a pronounced British legacy, have played a dominating role in the country’s politics from the beginning. The extraneous interference of both institutions has spurred undemocratic practices countrywide. Unluckily, Pakistan has borne the brunt of an unbalanced institutional setup in the face of a delinquent constitution-making process, multiple military coups, and the revocation of two constitutions. In contrast, another part of the problem lies with the highly entrenched centralized administrative system, leaving powers undistributed, fights between the local political representatives and deputy commissioners remain on fire. Therefore, it is correct to say, the unfair military and bureaucracy nexus, along with the implicit centralisation of powers, has sailed the country’s ship on the verge of a long-lasting political crisis, the after-effects of which can be felt by its entire political system. The only remedy for this trouble lies in the heart of an impartial and independent institutional setup countrywide. Above all, decentralisation of powers can lower the government burden and assure political stability in the country.
Likewise, in a row, the country’s weak opposition has eroded the beauty of democracy in Pakistan. Apart from working in the country’s interest, the opposition parties keep themselves busy accusing the government and plotting controversies against each other. The friction between the government and the opposition often remains under the limelight across media outlets. Many times, Senate and National assembly sessions fall prey to their dissents. Not only this, but the public’s passive role in political affairs has also become a dilemma across Pakistan. Due to a lack of awareness, people do not participate in elections. That is why the graph of voters’ turnout drops in every election, which is unhealthy for democracy. Undoubtedly, Both factors have damaged the essence of democracy in Pakistan. However, the opposition’s positive and state-oriented role and active public participation are the need of an hour for securing political stability in Pakistan.
a country’s political culture has been crucial to grabbing either FDI or national media’s attention. The more it becomes conducive, the more a country becomes politically stable. However, the political culture of Pakistan has been heterogeneous. Undemocratic norms, dynamic politics, aristocratic influence, and institutional imbalances make the country’s political culture susceptible and volatile. To make the country a modern polity and nib the social evils in the bud, the active role of the public, the proper role of media, and genuine democratic norms are a must.
In a nutshell, Pakistan’s political culture is not consensual due to various factors, putting severe implications on the country’s political, social, development; which, eventually, halts the country’s economic growth. Above all, the rigorous and undemocratic practices in politics have bred a volatile political environment, turning public trust and the country’s overall growth into ashes. However, by enforcing constitutional laws in their true spirit, an adequately working government can turn the tide and put the nation on the right track. Moreover, both government and opposition’s positive and pro-state attitudes and active public participation in political affairs are pivotal for transforming the country into a truly welfare state. Last but not least, to make the country a truly democratic polity, the people of Pakistan have to break the unseen shackles of British imperialism engraved deep in the entire political system.
ُُغلامی میں نہ کام آتی ہیں شمشیریں نہ تدبیریں
جو ہو ذوقِ یقین پیدا تو کٹ جاتی ہیں ذنجیریں
(شاعرِ ملت، عللامہ محمد اقبال)
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