CSS 2020 Solved Pakistan Affairs Past Papers | Discuss the Revival of Pak-US Relations in the Context of the Present Situation in Afghanistan.
The following question of CSS Pakistan Affairs 2020 is solved by Shumaila Majeed under the supervision of Miss Nirmal Hasni. She learnt how to attempt 20 marks question and essay writing from Sir Syed Kazim Ali, Pakistan’s best CSS and PMS English essay and precis teacher with the highest success rate of his students. This solved past paper question is attempted on the pattern taught by Sir to his students, scoring the highest marks in compulsory and optional subjects for years, and uploaded to help aspirants understand how to crack a topic or question, how to write relevantly, what coherence is, and how to include and connect ideas, opinions, and suggestions to score the maximum.
The examiner has asked to give suggestions on the revival of Pak-US relations while taking into consideration the present situation in Afghanistan. However, before striking the main query, it is pertinent to tersely gauge the current relations between Washington and Islamabad and their concise history to build a better apprehension of the answer while deeming the contemporary situation in Afghanistan.
- ✓ Pakistan and America, in 76-year-long chronicles, have borne both cordial and strangled relations. Ironically, the relations shifted into a tragic ambience when American troops withdrew from Afghanistan. The period from August 2021 to April 2022 proved a passe of the ugly pattern of allegations.
- ✓ However, the Afghanistan-centered ties between Islamabad and Washington have been diluted; hitherto, there are multiple chances to delve more into bilateral relations.
2- Gauging the present relations between Pakistan and the United States in the context of Afghanistan
3- Genesis behind the current US-Pak relationship under the light of the Afghan milieu
- ✓ Pakistan has long annals of alliances with the United States, a partaker in the Soviet Union’s dispersion, a front-line non-NATO ally in the American war against terrorism in Afghanistan, and a mediator and negotiator of reconciliation between Taliban leadership and the state diplomates to end the two-decade-long hostility.
- ✓ Unfortunately, the departure of the American army from Afghanistan has paved milestones toward pessimism between the two states.
4- Charting a pragmatic course to revive Pak-US relations in the context of the present situation in Kabul
- ✓ On humanitarian grounds
- To partake of Pakistan in the General System of Preferences (GSP) of Washington, which includes reducing tariffs on particular goods, women’s empowerment, environment protection, rule of law, and religious freedom
- ✓ On economic grounds – balancing China’s growing economic dominance in Pakistan and Afghanistan
- The wobbling economies of Pakistan and Afghanistan require foreign direct investments in the agriculture sectors, industrial zones, and other commercial areas
- ✓ On technological grounds – building ammunition technology to cope with insurgencies
- To activate cooperation, improving ammunition technology through bilateral efforts provides thoughtful startup
- ✓ On a science and education basis – rendering new opportunities in the region and producing man-power
- To introduce technical training education institutes in Afghanistan and Pakistan by the US, which would generate manpower, reduce militarists’ efficiencies, disband communist influence
5- Critical Analysis
6- Ending remarks
Pakistan and America, in 76-year-long chronicles, have borne both cordial and strangled relations. The fluctuating international relations due to the emergence of global values, market policies, hybrid warfare, democratic norms, and technological race have changed the course of interstate and inter-border demeanours; unfortunately, despite mutation in the functioning of the world, generating proxies from Pakistan’s land by America has remained the sole driver behind the US and Pakistan relations. However, it is evident that Pakistan, while allowing America to play proxies, has benefitted from it, taking loans from the International Monetary Funds, installing advanced weapons in its strategic auxiliary, and taking pecuniary benevolence; both nations have taken advantage of each other. Ironically, the relations shifted into a tragic ambience when American troops withdrew from Afghanistan; the period from August 2021 to April 2022 proved a passe of an ugly pattern of allegations. The Afghanistan-centered ties between the states are diluted; yet, there are chances to delve more into bilateral relations. Presently, Pakistan and Afghanistan are indulged in economic and humanitarian crises, and the need for international philanthropic organizations is even higher; hence, providing the chances for a balance of relationship between the US, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Moreover, the colossal fields of Pakistan present for foreign investment, such as education, economy, and technology, while the Pak army has experience in fighting radical elements, these domains if utilized prudently, could spring amicable relationships between Islamabad and Washington. Further, these better ties would help grow human capital, denouncing terrorist factions and bringing peace and stability in both Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Gauging the present relations between Pakistan and the United States in the context of Afghanistan
While taking a terse glance at Pakistan’s ties with America, one can concisely say that the US-Pakistan relations are not at dagger drawn yet as fickle as a feather. The US is the largest export centre of Pakistan’s goods, the fourth-largest remittance generator, bearer of IMF loans to Pakistan; thence, Pakistan diplomatically cannot antagonize the US. However, to much dismay, since the ejection of American troops from Afghan soil, the relationship between the two states has been estranged. Many times, Pakistan has tried to melt the ice, but these endeavours have proven futile, as America is no longer interested in Pakistan’s affairs. By critically analyzing the factual grounds, it could be deduced that the American role in Pakistan’s politics has invariably and clandestinely deepened. The ouster of the former Prime Minister of Pakistan has invented the naïve bases of relations with the US; the Shahbaz régime has experienced a few portfolios to work with America, as the state ambassador Blome emphasized, transferring its ties with Pakistan from security dominated partnership to a broad-based economic relationship. Later, it was also suggested by the US to make Pakistan more proficient in pawn radicalism by advancing the strategic strength of Pakistan’s army; hitherto, the grandiloquent promises are still resting on the papers of hope, demanding the US to alternate its course of relation with Pakistan, from Afghanistan-centered lens to the socio-economic ground of Pakistan.
Genesis behind the current US-Pak relationship under the light of the Afghan milieu
The country has long annals of alliances with the United States, a partaker in the Soviet Union’s dispersion, a front-line non-NATO ally in the American war against terrorism in Afghanistan, and a mediator and negotiator of reconciliation between Taliban leadership and the state diplomates to end the two-decade-long hostility in its North-West neighbourhood. In all those milestones that are assimilating over decades, America, too, improved the military might of Pakistan and helped it to face the perils of extremism insurgencies more confidently and counter the intrusion of the drug culture of Afghanistan into Pakistan through the porous Chaman border and Durand line. Nonetheless, the turn of unfortunate relations of mistrust between the United States and Pakistan started in 2011 and reached its peak in 2021. The unending blame game has started, America accused Pakistan of playing dual, alleging Pakistan of taking military and pecuniary benefits from it while providing safe havens to the Afghan Taliban, and has claimed this was the reason for American withdrawal and failure in Afghanistan. Notwithstanding, Pakistan has officially regarded these allegations as inappropriate and void of reasoning.
Charting a pragmatic course to revive Pak-US relations in the context of the present situation in Kabul
Pakistan, parallel to all sovereign nations, possesses numerous stations to bilaterally associate and work with any state. Also, there are multiple socio-economic accounts, such as trade, energy, health, security, and education, that provide momentum toward multifaceted alliances and compel the two governments to break the inertia of solely focusing on counterterrorism cooperation in the context of Afghanistan.
1- On humanitarian grounds
Likewise, serving the spirit of fundamental human rights, Pakistan and America could restructure their ties on humanitarian grounds. For instance, the partaking of Pakistan in the General System of Preferences (GSP), a proposed agenda of the US for developing nations, which includes reducing tariffs on particular goods to facilitate developing countries, while the trade proposal would be centred on labour rights, poverty reduction, women’s empowerment, environment protection, the rule of law, and religious freedom would, definitely, cause the two nations to come in the proximity of friendship. It is an appreciated step to uplift the socio-economic status and living standards of not only Pakistan but also Afghanistan, budding the right-directed relations between Pakistan and America. However, as these agendas require serious participants (engaged states with these programs), it is compulsory for Pakistan to abide by the defined dogmas of these GSPs, but present political and economic chaos in the country necessitates solemn constancy.
2- On economic grounds – balancing China’s growing economic dominance in Pakistan and Afghanistan
Moreover, the economies of both states, Pakistan and Afghanistan, are wobbling; for instance, the agriculture sector, industrial zones, and other commercial areas require critical amendments. Notwithstanding, innovation in these sectors could bring an optimistic shift in the economies of the two neighbouring nations. Moreover, as agriculture represents almost 20 of the Gross Domestic Production of Pakistan, the area has the potential to collaborate between the United States and Pakistan. Providing tech-farming capabilities can promote inclusivity, increase trade accords, as the United States is the most prominent trade partner of Pakistan, and enhance food security, which predominantly bolsters bilateral relations and effectively neutralizes China’s role in the South Asian region.
3-On technological grounds – building ammunition technology to cope with insurgencies
On account of bridging the gap between Pakistan and the US that would simultaneously activate cooperation, improving ammunition technology through bilateral efforts provides thoughtful startup. To evident the scheme, building strategic capabilities by introducing advanced weaponry models, like the induction of F16 in Pak-forces tactical units in the 1980s and aiding the Pakistan military in the war against terrorism, will not only help Pakistan to upgrade its agenda to purify the country from radicalism, terrorism, and extremism, specifically from her immediate neighbour, Afghanistan, but also provide a nimble approach to international cause of America, securing the fundamental interests, such as capitalism and liberalism. Eventually, it would express sanguinity in the bleak relationships between Pakistan and America.
4- On a science and education basis – rendering new opportunities in the region and producing man-power
Additionally, global politics has faced additional clefts regarding science, technology, commerce, and education, so the relations between the states can grip supplementary stages of improving science and education. The world is, evidently, perturbing with eastern and western blocs of the globe while America and Europe are established technological and education giants, the thriving Russian, Japanese, and, specifically, Chinese scientific flourishment wrapping the international market exponentially and influencing almost all regions, including South Asia. Providing education schemes to utilize the intellectual capabilities of people residing in developing and underdeveloped countries and facilitating both ends of a rope. As a matter of fact, America, in order to pursue its strength in South Asia, can facilitate the bulging Pakistani youth in the field of education. Moreover, under the policy of globalization, the US government could introduce technical training education institutes in both countries, Afghanistan and Pakistan, which would generate man-power, reduce militarists’ efficiencies, disband communist influence, and, most importantly, waver anti-American sentiment in Islamabad and Kabul.
Critically assessing the discussion
Critically diagnosing the revival of Paki-US relations in the context of the present situation in Afghanistan, from the aftermath of the US troops’ extraction from Afghanistan till today, the relations between Washington and Pakistan are faced coolly shoulder by America. The United States, to be very realistic, is non-committal on the issue of investment in Pakistan; despite the demands and requests of Pakistan to invest in tech, economic, education, and business sectors, the States administration conveys zero concerns. With the end of previous associations between the two countries only on the basis of Afghanistan and terrorism ended in disastrous ways, and since then, Pakistan has failed to entangle the US in any direction, whether it is geoeconomics, social, or humanitarian issues. However, with the evolving global relations and the tilting of the epicentres of international economies, one might be optimistic about US-Pak friendship.
In the concluding statement, the relationships between Pakistan and the US do not depict hospitable, yet the optimistic trajectory toward broad-band relations is possible. Pak-US relations have been unsteadied since the inception of Pakistan; more precisely, it is a Patron-client relation where Washington promoted its interests and took Pakistan as a granted tool to fulfil its mandate. The above-mentioned narrative could be evident when the US initially pursued its capitalist manifesto by using Pakistan as a proxy and later indulged the country in the war against terrorism in Afghanistan and the Chaman border-line. Moreover, the present gloomy picture, the trust deficiency between the two countries, and the unwillingness of the US administration to collaborate with Pakistan except on the issue of Afghanistan or related to terrorism is not the healthy conduct of any sovereign state. Notwithstanding, America remained the largest export market for Pakistani commodities and granted economic and humanitarian aid during the 2022 flashfloods cataclysms, and these bright sides hope for the revival of US-Pakistan relations. Furthermore, in the context of the present situation in Afghanistan, like Pakistan, it also needs economic partnership. Both Pakistan and Afghanistan have rich mineral and energy resources, vast agricultural lands, and bulging youth, and these aspects, if tacitly flourished through bilateral collaborations, would not only strengthen the Pak-US friendship but also economic drift, radical elements, and sub-standard lifestyle would effectively subside. However, the availability of these opportunities requires mutual commitment, strong political will, and consistency.
CSS Solved Past Papers’ Essays
Looking for the last ten years of CSS and PMS Solved Essays and want to know how Sir Kazim’s students write and score the highest marks in the essays’ papers? Then, click on the CSS Solved Essays to start reading them.CSS Solved Essays
CSS 2020 Solved Pakistan Affairs
CSS Solved General Science & Ability Past Papers
Want to read the last ten years’ General Science & Ability Solved Past Papers to learn how to attempt them and to score high? Let’s click on the link below to read them all freely. All past papers have been solved by Miss Iqra Ali & Dr Nishat Baloch, Pakistan’s top CSS GSA coach having the highest score of their students. General Science & Ability Solved Past Papers
Articles Might Interest You!
The following are some of the most important articles for CSS and PMS aspirants. Click on any to start reading.