Political Instability in Pakistan: Causes, Impacts, and Remedies


Political Instability in Pakistan: Causes, Impacts, and Remedies | Best for CSS, PMS Current Affairs, Pakistan Affairs, and Essay Papers

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Unfortunately, in Pakistan, the political instability has proved itself detrimental to the socio-economic health of the country. Its impacts:

  • Destroying national integrity
  • Halting economic growth and burgeoning terrorism can be mitigated by enforcing constitutional laws
  • Building the concept of national integrity
  • Conducting transparent elections in the state



  • Killing the national integrity
  • Escalating terrorism and extremism 
  • Decreasing Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)
  • Declining the healthy political environment  


  • The centralization of power
  • The trend of family leadership
  • The, nearly, three decades of dictatorship
  • An aggressive style of politics


  • To conduct transparent and unbiased elections
  • To build the concept of national integrity
  • To work mutually for the betterment of Pakistan
  • To enforce constitutional laws in the true sense 
  • To encourage public participation 



Answer to the Question


Undoubtedly, political instability has caused great havoc around the globe. It jolts a state socially, politically, and, most importantly, economically. Similarly, Pakistan has faced several issues because of political instability. Where it hampered the state’s political environment, it has stricken its economy. The decline of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) has been the most significant impact on the economic arena of the polity. Moreover, it has also emerged as a terrible weapon to kill the concept of national integrity. However, several factors are pushing Pakistan towards political instability:

  • The centralization of power
  • The trend of family leadership
  • The regimes of dictatorship
  • The aggressive style of leadership

Nevertheless, to mitigate the political instability in Pakistan, conducting transparent elections, working mutually for the betterment of Pakistan by the political parties, enforcing constitutional laws, and encouraging the active role of the public would be immensely helpful. This answer discusses the causes and impacts of the malice and recommends the measures required to eradicate it. 

At present, the issue of political instability has become a matter of grave concern for Pakistan. It manifests in multiple ways across the country, including widespread political corruption, nepotism, cronyism and abuse of power. As a result, it has cast dire consequences on the state’s social, political, and economic peace. For instance, the recent formation of the Pakistan Democratic Movement has created great havoc across the state. Moreover, the threat of “sit-ins and the march towards the parliament” has disturbed political peace and economic development. Thus, the government has to find a way of positive political settlement.  

The political instability has curbed Pakistan’s progress socially, politically, and economically. With the rise of political instability, political polarization has prevailed intensely amongst the political parties. As a matter of fact, when various parties with different slogans step into politics for their vested interests, the concept of national integrity starts to vanish. Since Pakistan is composed of multiple ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups, the element of national integrity has been a dream for Pakistanis. Taking advantage of the situation, anti-Pakistani agencies exploit the situation to spread terrorism and extremism. As a consequence of terrorism and extremism, the country’s economy receives a fragile inflow of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI); thus, the state’s economy suffers badly. Nonetheless, the political instability also bred a volatile political environment in the state on the basis of the undemocratic practices. Thus, political stability has laden the state in several ways.    

Pakistan has suffered political instability for several decades. There are multiple reasons behind the menace. First, the duel of power between the federal and provincial governments has been the paramount reason. It has been the dominant reason behind the political riots and inefficient governing system that always fails to implement laws within the appropriate time. Second, the trend of family leadership has distorted the political fabric of the state. Third, for several decades, Pakistan has witnessed the leadership of three major parties: Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP), Pakistan Muslim League Nawaz (PML– N), and Pakistan Tehreek Insaaf (PTI). Despite multiple failures of the political parties to uplift Pakistan, ruling the country more than once reflects the perpetual power game played secretly by the nation. Moreover, for around thirty years, the regimes of dictatorship have haphazard the political system of Pakistan. As a result, the civil-military relationship has been fragile and incompetent. Nevertheless, the aggressive style of politics has also ruined the state’s political stability. Revoking the nation’s emotions in the name of caste, creed, and religion to gather votes has been common. 

To fix the issue, Pakistan must ensure a transparent election system. By implementing transparency, the true elected political party could get a chance to serve the country. Moreover, this may also help to end dynastic politics. Additionally, building unity and national integrity concepts amongst the public may help set aside ethnic and linguistic differences so that the political leaders don’t further exploit the nation for their political interests. National integrity in the state would push the political parties to work in favour of the state. Moreover, the enforcement of constitutional law in a true spirit and adequately working government can turn the tide and put the country on the right track. Similarly, encouraging public participation may help pluck the country out of the political darkness. The active role of the public in politics would hold politicians accountable for each immature and self-interest policy. As a result, the political parties would restrain themselves from skipping the pro-state attitude. Thus, the abovementioned steps may help the country eradicate political instability.  

Nothing hurts a country’s socio-economic fabric the way political instability does. Unfortunately, Pakistan being a democratic country, has witnessed a large number of events of political instability. As a matter of fact, the country has perceived the martial-law for around three decades, giving a huge blow to the democratic system of the polity. Moreover, the inadequate and vulnerable civil-military relationship has led the country to political instability. Thus, political instability is one of the factors behind the stagnant growth of Pakistan in the social, political, and economic arenas.

Distorting the national integrity, escalating terrorism and extremism, decreasing Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), and declining the political health of the state are some disturbing impacts of political instability. Moreover, it has robbed the nation’s bright future and has pushed the state to the brink of implosion. However, conducting transparent and unbiased elections, building the concept of national integrity, enforcing constitutional laws in a true sense and encouraging public participation may turn helpful for controlling the issue. Moreover, each political party must follow a positive and pro-state attitude while dealing with the country’s political matters.  

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