National Disintegration In Pakistan: Causes, Impacts, and Way Forwards


National Disintegration In Pakistan: Causes, Impacts, and Way Forwards | Best for CSS, PMS Current Affairs, Pakistan Affairs, and Essay Papers

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Despite learning the importance of unity, faith, and discipline for a nation from the founding father, Pakistan, a nation-state, has suffered from national disintegration since its inception. The socio-economic slope, along with the lack of good governance and a powerful justice system, is the leading factor behind splitting the nation based on culture, language, and sects. However, creating economic opportunities, reviving the education system and improving the law-and-order situation may be an effective remedy to unite the disintegrating nation.



  • Splitting the population of Pakistan into different ethnic groups.
  • Migrating in seek of a better lifestyle
  • Lacking a sense of patriotism and responsibility
  • Boosting poverty, corruption, and nepotism


  • The socio-economic decline
  • The lack of ownership 
  • The dysfunctional education system 
  • The absence of the rule of law, good governance, and a strong justice system 


  • To create socio-economic opportunities
  • To provide the necessities of life
  • To revamp the education system
  • To improve the law-and-order situation
  • To give each province its due share in the resources
  • To utilize religious and educated one to gather the population under the umbrella of ideology



Answer to the Question


As national disintegration does, nothing hurts a state socially, politically, economically, and religiously. it is cancerous for a nation, and it, eventually collapses the culture, civilization, and prosperity of society. Pakistan, unfortunately, has faced the issue of national disintegration from the very first day of its creation. With the early demise of the founder of the state Quaid e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the nation couldn’t find another political leadership under whose leadership they may unite and emerge as the best nation globally. The dysfunctional education system, lack of ownership, and a strong justice system and accountability have driven the nation to disintegration. As a result of this malfunction of Pakistani society, the state has been struck by corruption, poverty, political instability, and ethnic and political extremism. However, to obliterate national disintegration effectively, the state must create socio-economic opportunities for the youth to remain in the country and serve it integrally. Moreover, the revival of the education system, improving the law and order situation and allotting each province its actual share of the resources may help the nation gather under the umbrella of the state’s ideology.

At present, several issues in Pakistan are linked with the national disintegration issue. Where the very issue had devastated the country’s social fabric, it has also made the state vulnerable to the impacts of the 5th generation warfare. Rising threats of separation of Baluchistan and Sindh province are an explicit example. Moreover, the issue of national disintegration has also stratified the nation via linguistic and national identity crises. Thus, the state governing personnel and institutions must take pragmatic steps to prevent Pakistan from breakdown.  

The crisis of national integration has been an old challenge for Pakistan. It has split the state’s population into antithesis groups based on linguistic, political, religious, and ethnic differences. One of the prominent examples of the linguistic difference is the separation of East Pakistan from West Pakistan. Moreover, national disintegration has also caused a brain drain, for the state’s youth leaves the state seeking better economic prosperity. On the one hand, the state is deprived of young minds to pull the country out of the crisis. On the other hand, the country’s youth is antithetical to the state’s future. The overseas Pakistanis, forgetting the painful events of sacrifice on the way of creating Pakistan by their ancestors, serve other nations and states by their potential throughout their lives and invest outside of Pakistan. Thus, the state has to suffer a shortage of creative workforce. Moreover, national disintegration boosts society’s social evils, such as poverty, unemployment, child labour, corruption, nepotism, and many other social evils. To strengthen itself, each ethical and linguistic group appoints their person to higher designations of the institutions illegally; consequently, it kills the meritocracy system in the state. 

The powerful diagnosis has unfolded several causes of national disintegration. Among them, one of the leading causes of national decay is the socio-economic decline of Pakistan. Since the necessities of an individual aren’t fulfilled by the state, people, to grab those needs, use unlawful ways to sustain themselves in society. Thus, it hampers the peace and integrity of society. Moreover, lack of ownership has also driven the nation to disintegration. Corruption, lack of the rule of law, and nepotism are examples of lack of ownership. People, to fulfil their needs, hurt the state. Politicians and a huge chunk of the population abandon the sense of ownership and their responsibility for their vested interests. Besides it, the dysfunctional education system has further deteriorated the situation. The state’s education system has failed to teach a sense of patriotism, responsibility, and attachment to the culture, civilization, land, and values amongst the state’s youth. Moreover, the absence of the rule of law, accountability, and good governance has given courage to the lawbreakers. The anti-Pakistan agencies exploit the absence of good governance to gain their goals. Thus, several social evils have contributed to the decay of bonds amongst the state’s citizens.  

It is high time for Pakistan to take corrective and preventive measures to mitigate the crisis of national integration. To begin with, Pakistan’s government should ensure that economic opportunities are created for the nation based on merit. The presence of economic avenues may help the citizens to fulfil their necessities comfortably. As a matter of fact, society enjoys integration, unity, peace, prosperity, and harmony when its habitat meets its necessities easily. In the same fashion, revamping the state’s educational system may help the nation achieve its goals. A uniform education system, for sure, may evolve as a bond to share the same education for all classes of society: lower, mediocre, and high. Moreover, the education system must teach patriotism and a sense of social responsibility to the state’s youth. Thus, revamping the education system, though time taking a practical measure, would be the best way to cope with the tragedy of national disintegration.   

In addition, improving the law-and-order situation may help the citizens come close to each other. Amid the 5th generation of warfare, the anti-state agencies or actors exploit the differences amongst the state’s population, so the former may hamper the peace and security of the state. Hence, controlling the law-and-order situation would turn the plans of the anti-state actors into ash. Moreover, awarding each province of Pakistan its true share may help the citizens of different linguistic, religious, political, and ethnic groups to live friendly. Furthermore, religious and political leadership are mandatory and the best medium for the state to spread the message of peace and national integration. These influencers can turn the different groups towards a friendly relationship and may collect them under the head of state’s ideology. Thus, the abovementioned measure may take time but are worthful. 

With the early demise of Quaid e Azam, Pakistan has faced many problems. Unfortunately, inept leadership and civil-military issues have dominated all other state challenges. As a result, the nation is split into several groups. Though the nation has a mutual point of interest that is their language Urdu, the language alone is never enough for the nation to withstand together. Therefore, strengthening the socio-economic domain of society is necessary. Strengthening the people of Pakistani society socially, politically, economically, and religiously would ultimately cultivate tolerance and patience for each other. Thus, language and socio-economic betterment and the distribution of resources with justice may help pluck the state out of the challenge. 

Nothing hurts the state socially, politically, and economically the way national disintegration does. It has become the major cause of unemployment, corruption, nepotism, and extremism. Amongst several causes of national disintegration, the absence of a strong accountability system and the poor educational system stands the major. To conclude, the nation must comprehend the importance of unity and discipline. As remarkably said by Quaid e Azam, “Unity, faith, and discipline is what makes a disparate crowd a nation”. Thus, the nation must revise the lessons – the diamond-hard, clear cut and tangible speeches – delivered by the founder of Pakistan.

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