Impacts of Globalization on Developing Countries

Impacts of Globalization on Developing Countries

PMS Ministerial Solved Essays | Impacts of Globalization on Developing Countries

This PMS Ministerial essay is attempted by Sobia Sangrasi on the given pattern, which Sir Syed Kazim Ali teaches to his students, who have consistently been qualifying their CSS, and PMS essays. Sir Syed Kazim Ali has been Pakistan’s top English writing and CSS, PMS essay and precis coach with the highest success rate of his students. The essay is uploaded to help other competitive aspirants learn and practice essay writing techniques and patterns.

How To Attempt 25-Marks PMS Ministerial Essay?

Unlike CSS or PMS essays, the essays asked in the PMS ministerial or any descriptive examinations in Pakistan are of 25-marks. All you need to qualify for the PMS ministerial essay paper is to understand the topic, create an outline displaying the proper plan of your essay and write an introduction precisely carrying the thesis statement. An introductory paragraph of such essays is a 150- to 200-word paragraph that gives your examiner a quick overview of your essay and its organization. It should express your thesis (or central idea) and your key points. Remember, the introductory paragraph is a concise summary of the essay, upon which your success standstill. However, the body of your essay will develop and explain these ideas much more thoroughly. As you will see in the solved essay below, the proportion of your introduction that you dedicate to each kind of information and the sequence of that information might vary, depending on the nature and genre of the essay you select. Nevertheless, in some cases, some of this information is implied rather than stated explicitly. For better preparation, revise my lectures on how to attempt a 20 or 25 marks essay, write its outline and introduction and prove your arguments with relevant evidence in the essay’s body paragraphs. 

1- Introduction

  • Globalization, the unbridled movement of information, technology, and products across the borders, is a dynamic phenomenon in the contemporary world.
  • Globalization has transformed each facet of life
  • No nation is immune from the effects of globalization

2- Understanding the term globalization

  • Globalization means integration and cooperation of all nations in all spheres of life for the enhancement of common interest
  • Globalization is a multidimensional process

3- Positive impacts of globalization on developing countries:

3.1. Economic impacts

  • Increase in trade and foreign direct investment
    • Case in point: Rising of Indian average growth rate up to 5.9 per cent
  • Increment in remittances
    • Case in point: Philippines and Pakistan
  • Enhancement in technological advancement
    • Case in point: Example of Ford’s Lyman car

3.2. Socio-cultural impacts

  • Alleviation of poverty
    • Case in point: China and India’s development reducing world poverty
  • Empowerment of women
    • Case in point: Formation of laws for the protection of women
  • Development in the education and health sector
    • Case in point: WHO report and positive effects on Bangladesh, India

3.3. Political impacts

  • Emergence of the democratic system
    • Case in point: A case study of Pakistan
  • Collective efforts to fight environmental hazards
    • Case in point: Eradication of COVID-19 and mutual fight against terrorism, extremism and poverty
  • Mutual efforts for achieving peace globally
    • Case in point: Role of the United Nations in achieving peace and harmony

4- Negative impacts of globalization on developing countries:

4.1. Economic impacts

  • Demolishing local industry of states
  • Moving skilled labour and youth from countries
    • Case in point: A case study of Pakistan and Bangladesh
  • Increasing dependency of states on foreign assistance and loan
    • Case in point: Case of Pakistan

4.2. Socio-cultural impacts

  • Westernization of traditional and cultural norms and values
    • Case in point: Arab countries; Syria, Lebanon
  • Increment in health hazards
    • Case in point: Incidence of COVID-19
  • The rise in environmental issues
    • Case in point: Case of China

4.3. Political impacts

  • Destroying the sovereignty of the state
    • Case in point: USA using the land of Pakistan for the Afghan war and war on terror
  • Creating a conflict of ideologies
    • Case in point: USA trying to implement her ideology across the world
  • Demolishing the difference between domestic and foreign policies

5- Critical analysis

6- Conclusion

Globalization, the unbridled movement of information, technology, and products across borders, is a dynamic phenomenon in the contemporary world. Broadly considered an economic phenomenon, globalization has visibly transformed each facet of life by and large. No nation is immune from its impacts, whether it be a developed or developing state. On the bright side, globalization is playing a pivotal role in the development of developing countries by providing several opportunities, such as easing the way of doing business, accelerating the flow of technology, increasing trade opportunities, alleviating poverty, simplifying the way of eradicating environmental hazards etc. For instance, China, a developing nation once struggling to have its say in international comity, has successfully challenged the American hegemony by actively participating in the era of globalization. However, under all the seemingly positive effects of globalization on the growth and prosperity of developing nations, there lies the enormity of challenges, like demolishing local industries, increasing migration of skilled labour and youth across nations, raising environmental hazards, and destroying the sovereignty of the nations, that can leave such nations at the verge of extinction. For instance, developing countries like Africa and some rural areas of China suffer from the highest poverty rates. In short, in order to reap maximum benefits from globalization, which has become the need of time, developing countries need to learn how to swim in the river of globalization by adopting balanced strategies.

“Globalization will make our societies more creative and prosperous, but also morvulnerable.”                                                                          

 – Lord Robertson

Literally, globalization means integration and cooperation of all nations in all spheres of life for the enhancement of common interests. Globalization is a multidimensional process. Its impacts can extend to economics, politics, social, cultural aspects etc. Multiple dimensions of the process are interrelated and reinforcing. In economic terms, globalization has widened access to products and services and increased trade and foreign direct investment (FDI). In the same manner, the socio-cultural impacts of the process are even deeper, changing the concept of personal identity. Individuals are connecting throughout the world, adopting similar cultures. For this very purpose, global actors, such as global media corporations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), multi-national companies (MNCs) have played an influential role. As a result of globalization, the world is becoming more homogenised and cultural differences are eradicated, driven by the force of technological advancements. Thus, with regard to different fields, globalization has been defined by multiple scholars. Globalization, according to Holm and Sorensen, is the “intensification of economic, political, social, and cultural relations across the border.”

Considering the various dimensions of globalization, it has impacted developing nations both positively and negatively. Initiating with merits, globalization has provided nations with a large room to prosper by dwindling trade barriers and enhancing FDI. Liberalisation has allowed multiple national and international companies to trade in countries and create an environment of competence among companies, adding to the economic growth of states. Besides, steps taken by many developing nations to open up markets by removing tariffs and freeing up their markets have paved the way for developed nations to invest in such states, creating job opportunities for the masses. For instance, the Indian economy greatly benefited from globalization. In the 1970s, the Indian annual growth rate was 3 per cent. However, in the 1980s, the average annual growth rate of India touched the margin of 5.9 per cent. Thus, globalization not only aid India in raising its growth rate substantially but also improves its position globally.

Similarly, remittances are the main source of skyrocketing the economy of a state. Globalization has provided the path for augmenting remittances. Remittance inflows help boost countries’ balance of payment. For instance, in 2019, Philippines remittances inflows of $34bn helped reduce the current account deficit by more than 10 per cent of GDP; in Pakistan, remittances averaged to 3657.95 million USD from 2002 to 2023. Moreover, the advancement of science and technology has significantly reduced the cost of transportation and communication. The time-space compression effect of technological progress has declined the cost of international trade and investment, which makes it possible to organize and coordinate global production. For instance, Ford’s Lyman car is designed in Germany; its gearing system is formed in Korea, its pump in the USA, and the engine in Australia. It is globalization that has made this kind of production possible. Thus, economic globalization has led to fruitful results taking the state’s economy to its zenith.

In the same fashion, globalization, by reducing trade barriers and uplifting the export sector of nations, has not only opened the door of opportunities for developed nations but also significantly reduced the poverty level of developing countries. The rapid expansion of foreign trade made by developing nations generated demand for resources and energy; such emerging states started consuming 50 per cent of global energy production. This led them to increase their manufacturing and compete effectively in the world market. For instance, around 50 per cent of computers produced come from China. Thus, in the last two decades, India and China have started growing at a faster pace than already rich nations; the rapid development of both nations has caused world poverty to decline immensely. Further, globalization has provided a wonderful platform for women to raise their voices against patriarchy and injustice by paving the way for them to know about their rights. It assists women to engage in different facets, including social, political, economic, cultural, and sports. Also, the constitution guarantees rights for women. A number of laws, such as the Prevention of Anti-women Practices ( 2011) in Pakistan and the Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (1993) in India, have empowered women to work fearlessly. Ergo, by providing education and awareness, globalization has led women to develop by leaps and bounds.

Additionally, globalization has significantly contributed to the education and health sector of developing nations. Health and education are basic objectives to improve any nation. Through substantial economic growth, developing states are able to invest in the education and health sector. Through globalization, several international organisations, like WHO, UNESCO, and NGOs, are trying to eradicate illiteracy and lethal diseases from the world. Hence, a number of countries have alleviated the illiteracy rate, including India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka etc., and the enormity of diseases, like AIDS, swine flu, Polio, and bird flu, has been reduced greatly. According to WHO, “With globalization, more than 85 per cent of the world’s population can expect to live for at least sixty years, and this is actually twice as long as the average life expectancy 100 years ago”.

Politically globalization has proven beneficial for the political structure of developing countries as well. Globalization has suppressed authoritarian government and flourished democratic forms of government across the world. Through globalization, democracy has flourished worldwide, enabling each person to enjoy their rights to the fullest. For instance, despite the fact that Pakistan has been a democratic state since its inception, inept leadership, unnecessary military intervention, and corrupt practices have made it more of an authoritarian government. Globalization, through media and technology, has made the public aware of their rights and power, thus, enabling them to protest against authoritarian rulers and help flourish democratic norms. Similarly, the process has provided easier access to information regarding environmental hazards or health issues. For instance, many diseases, like AIDS, influenza, and polio, have been eradicated. Currently, COVID-19, the deadliest virus, has been successfully exterminated due to globalization. Easier access to information and the flow of goods and services have helped the masses to get rid of the deadliest impacts of the virus. Likewise, developing nations, owing to globalization, are not left alone to fight the menace of global warming, terrorism, extremism, and poverty. International organizations and countries are working mutually to eradicate such menaces from their roots.

“While globalization will make the world smaller and more accessible, we must continue to appreciate its vibrant diversity.”

 –   Jean Philippe Courtois.

Moving forward, globalization has played an active role in making the world a peaceful place to live in. With the aid of integration and the interconnectedness of nations, the process has created an atmosphere of peace and harmony. It was only possible with the help of globalization that the cycle of world wars had ended. Over the past many years, a number of organizations have evolved, struggling hard to maintain peace and harmony. Among all, United Nations is the most renowned one presently. For instance, the UN has worked hard to achieve peace and stability between Pakistan and India, Israel and Palestine, and Ukraine and Russia. While the main agenda of the UN is to achieve peace between different nations, it is also working to achieve developmental goals for developing states. With members from 185 nations, the UN is a prime example of a diplomatic global village. Delegations from each country come to an agreement about rules and policies and tend to have fewer conflicts.  Resultantly, globalization has turned up the wave of the political culture of developing nations.

Nevertheless, globalization is not always as glorious as it seems. A number of challenges are associated with globalization. To begin with, the process has significantly destroyed the lock businesses of developing nations by creating an environment of competition worldwide. The low barrier in cross-border trade has cleared the path for Multinational Companies and MNCs to expand their resources and power. Due to this, local industries are suffering because they cannot meet what is considered to be international standards. Miserably, products produced by these local industries are unable to compete with products from foreign nations in terms of quality, price or marketing strategy. Correspondingly, by creating an environment of competition within and among nations, globalization has caused the youth and skilled labour to move to developed nations in search of better employment. Due to this very fact, youth is compelled to work for developed nations to gain perks and privileges. For instance, the garment industry in Bangladesh employs four million people, but average workers earn less in a month than US workers earn in a day. It proved to be the death blow for industry and for the nation. Similarly, in search of better employment, more than 300 Pakistani nationals were killed in the sinking of an overcrowded fishing trawler off the coast of Greece. Thus, globalization is wreaking havoc on developing countries.

To add more, globalization has raised the dependency of developing nations on international institutions. In spite of focusing on self-help and self-reliant methods, developing nations are heeding foreign aid and loan. The very method is proving to be lethal for such poor nations as high interest is hindering them from investing in public. Such dependency has taken a number of developing nations below the poverty line, such as Tanzania, sub-Saharan African countries, and Pakistan. For instance, Pakistan has gone to IMF 23 times in 75 years, proving that developing nations are running their economies on such loans and aid. The external debt of Pakistan, according to World Bank, has reached to sixty-six million USD from 2002 to 2021. Hence, globalization has left developing states on the verge of extinction.

Next to it, globalization has adversely impacted the sociocultural structure of the nations. Owing to important tools of globalization, like TV, internet, and satellite, it is now easy to see what is happening worldwide, providing impetus for people to adopt Western culture. Consequently, developing countries have imitated Western culture, leaving traditional values and customs at a dead end. People connecting throughout the world are adopting the same culture. It is common to see teenagers wearing Nike T-shirts, and Adidas footwear, using Apple iPad, listening Hip Hop music, and eating at KFC, Macdonald’s and Domino’s. Many developing countries are concerned regarding the rapid rise of globalization as it is destroying their cultural and traditional values and norms. For instance, many Arab countries, including Syria, Lebanon, and Iraq, have been affected significantly as their cultural values have altered merely. They wear and behave like developed nations.

Correspondingly, globalization has seriously impacted the health sector across the world. Due to increasing trade and travel, a number of diseases, such as AIDS, Polio, Swine flu, and COVID-19, have found their path towards developing countries. This has influenced badly to life expectancy and living standards of such nations miserably. For instance, according to the World Bank report, “The AIDS crisis has reduced life expectancy in some parts of Africa to less than 33 years.” Moreover, at present, the emergence of COVID-19 puts the lives of the masses at stake globally. According to WHO, the deadliest virus has caused the demise of more than 6.86 million people worldwide. Ironically, such a massive disaster was the result of globalization. On the same note, developing nations are suffering from dire environmental hazards owing to the rise of globalization. The development of developing nations at a faster pace throughout the years has resulted in greater emissions of GHG. Owing to globalization, emerging countries, to make a greater profit, frequently put the environment at risk. The best example is China, which is constructing a new coal-fired power plant every week. Although coal is the cheapest and most abundant fossil fuel, it is most polluting as well. Ergo, China is often regarded as the world’s greatest source of CO2 emissions.

On political grounds, the most outweighing impact is overpowering transnational institutes, putting the nation’s sovereignty at stake. Such empowerment provides a path for international and transnational institutes to intervene in national affairs, violating the sovereignty of the nations. As aptly stated by Woodward, “Globalisation had diffused power away from states empowering individuals and groups to play their roles in world politics including wreaking destruction-that were once reserved for governments of states”. The aforementioned statement depicts the extent of transformation in world politics as a result of globalization. For instance, America used the land of pure during the Afghan war and the war on terror, which significantly impacted the sovereignty of the nation.

Besides, globalization is giving rise to a conflict of ideologies. The world is still a diverse place, with different nations having different systems of governance, like communism, capitalism, and democracy. Developing countries are facing huge challenges from developed nations to submit to their ideologies depending on benefits and risks provided rather than their own will. Such a sorry state of developing nations is due to globalization as it is working to make the rich richer and the poor poorer. As a result, developing nations have to live at the mercy of developed countries to make ends meet. For instance, the USA is incessantly working to implement her ideology across the world. In addition, the indulgence of international actors in national affairs has exterminated the distinction between domestic and foreign policies. Satirically, the nations have lost the position to have their say in international matters. Thus, the nations are obliged to act according to the policies of global economy regulating bodies.

Critically, the transition is a natural phenomenon. Globalization calls for the modernization of societies around the globe based on scientific and technological advancement. Societies are responding to the challenges of globalization, either by modernization based on scientific development or Westernization, imitating Western modernity, specifically in cultural terms. Globalization can work for all, be it a developed country or a developing nation. Emerging countries, with effective and adjustable policy measures, can curtail the cons of globalization. Menaces like uneven development, poverty, environmental and health hazards, and westernization can effectively be controlled by adopting balanced strategies.

In the powerful diagnosis, globalization is one of the contemporary issues. No nation can survive in isolation. It consists of both costs and benefits; the effects of the process depend upon the Socio-Political and economic conditions of the nations. Developing countries, including India, China, Jordan and Bangladesh, have significantly benefited from the process of globalization by increasing FDI, technological advancement, alleviating illiteracy, supporting women’s empowerment etc. On the other hand, the process also has numerous drawbacks, putting developing nations, like Pakistan, Afghanistan, and African countries, below the poverty line. Despite that, the negative impacts of globalization can be minimized by constant adjustment and control measures. In short, globalization can work for developing countries as well, provided that such nations can start giving serious thought to the negative and positive impact of globalization and formulating policies accordingly.

“Globalization is a great thing, but it needs a legal framework in which to blossom.”   

 –   Loretta Napoleoni

PMS Ministerial Solved Past Papers’ Essays

Are you searching for PMS Ministerial solved essays from 2010 to till date? Click on any of the topics to start reading the solved essays. All essays have been attempted by Sir Syed Kazim Ali’s students who have either qualified for the CSS or PMS examination or scored the highest marks in the essay papers.

1-Good Governance (2010)
2-Islam and Brotherhood of Mankind (2010)
3-Literature is the Essence of Life (2010)
4-Role of Responsible Media (2010)
5-A Bird in Hand is Worth Two in the Bush (2016)
6-He Who Opens a School Door, Closes a Prison (2016)
7-Local Government is the Base of a Successful Democratic System (2016)
8-Clean Environment is Good Environment (2016)
9-Human Resource Development is a Key to Progress and Prosperity (2019)
10-High Growth Rate in Population is Adversely Affecting our Economic Progress (2019)
11-Public School System in Pakistan (2019)
12-Importance of Preventive Healthcare (2019)
13-National Integration (2021)
14-Of All Forms of Servitude, the Intellectual is the Most Degrading. Expand This Statement by Showing its Complete Significance and also Attempt to Justify or Disprove it. (2021)
15-Advantages and Disadvantage of Facebook (2021)
16-Single National Curriculum: Prospects and Problems (2021)
17-Impacts of Globalization on Developing Countries

 

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