Write a note on the Two-Nation Theory and the Lahore Resolution of March 1940

Write a note on the Two-Nation Theory and the Lahore Resolution of March 1940

Solved by Miss Arooj Nadeem

CSS Solved Pakistan Affairs Past Paper 2016 | Jinnah, in his Presidential Address to the annual session of All India Muslim League in March 1940, said“ The problem in India is not inter-communal, but manifestly of an international one, and it must be treated as such.” Write a note on the Two-Nation Theory and the Lahore Resolution of March 1940 in the light of this statement. CSS 2016

Question’s Breakdown:

In this question, the examiner asks you to discuss Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s views on Two Nation Theory and Lahore Resolution. So, you are required to take a stance and prove it till the last of your sentence. Maintaining brevity and proper articulation and relevance would help the aspirants fetch the maximum marks.

The answer is solved on the given pattern, which Sir Syed Kazim Ali teaches his students, who consistently score the maximum because of their attempting the questions. The content is based on historical facts taught by Sir Rameez Ch.


1- Introduction 

In his Presidential Address to the annual session of the All India Muslim League in March 1940, Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah articulated the notion of the Two Nation Theory to make the world know that sub-continent had two separate nations. He brought the Muslims’ problems out of the box of communalism into the international character. He stated that the Hindus and the Muslims were two distinct nations with their own culture, norms, traditions, and history. So, merging them in any way would lead the region towards a complete disaster and chaos.

2- Quaid-e-Azam and Two Nation Theory 

  • Emphatic exposition of Two Nation Theory by Quaid-e-Azam 
  • Islam and Hinduism as two distinct civilisations, reconciling at no point
  • Analogous to a coin, having two sides; religious identity and an independent homeland for Muslims

3- Presidential Address of Quaid-e-Azam on the occasion of the Lahore Resolution 

  • Acceptance of the Lahore Resolution strengthened the Two-Nation Theory 
  • Articulation of Two Nation Theory to make the world know that sub-continent had two separate nations
  • Practical shape to the ideology given by Allama Iqbal 

4- Critical Analysis 
5- Conclusion 

Answer to the Question


Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah inculcated the Two-Nation Theory effectively on the occasion of the Lahore Resolution, 1940. The differences between the Hindus and the Muslims were so immense that their peaceful union under one central government was near impossible. Also, he considered it an international issue as both the Hindus and the Muslims were a nation by every right. Meanwhile, their differences started gaining the world’s attention. Furthermore, the league resolved that any future constitutional plans proposed by the British for India would be acceptable to the Muslims only if they would be given an independent state. Having passed the Lahore Resolution, the then Muslims of India changed their ultimate goal. Instead of protecting their fundamental right in United India, they chose a path whose destination was a separate homeland for the Muslims of India. This answer comprehensively discusses Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s Two-Nation Theory and the Lahore Resolution.

“We maintain and hold that Muslims and Hindus are two major nations by any definition or test of a nation. We are a nation of a hundred million, and what is more, we are a nation with our own distinctive culture and civilisation and, therefore, have every right to have our own separate homeland.”

(Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah)

Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, a Muslim great leader in the subcontinent, gave the clearest and most emphatic exposition of the Two-Nation Theory. To him, it was analogous to a coin having two sides. On the one hand, it was to save the religious identity of the Muslims; on the other hand, a prosperous homeland for the Muslims without being subjugated or suppressed. Moreover, Islam and Hinduism represented two distinct and separate civilisations, having different origins, traditions and manners of life. Both nations derived their inspiration from various sources of history. They had different epics, different heroes and different episodes. The hero of one was a foe of the other; likewise, their victories and defeats overlap. To yoke together two such nations under a single state, one as a numerical minority and the other as a majority, must lead to growing discontent and final destruction of a state. With that, having a common belief in the Two-Nation Theory for the creation of Pakistan was an essential element for which Muslim League had been making efforts since its inception. Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, together with Muslim League leaders and other Muslims of the subcontinent, had a staunched belief in a separate identity of the Muslims and the Hindus that could never be merged into a single nation. Based on Two Nation Theory, A. K Fazal-ul-Haq, the then Chief Minister of Bengal, presented the Lahore resolution. 

Undoubtedly, the acceptance of the Lahore Resolution strengthened the Two-Nation Theory that was the basis of Muslims’ struggle for independence in the Subcontinent. Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah took a stand and declared that Muslims are not a minority and they are a nation by any definition; therefore, they have every right to demand a separate Muslim homeland. He also emphasised that no constitutional plan would be workable or acceptable to the Muslims unless contiguous geographical units were demarcated into regions. He considered, “The problem in India is not inter-communal, but manifestly of an international one, and it must be treated as such.” Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s foresightedness that if this issue were confined to the subcontinent only, it would remain unresolved. It was the need for an hour to highlight this matter at an international forum to preserve the identity, culture, and, above all, religion of the Indian Muslims. He also criticized the federal scheme for India as envisaged in the Act of 1935 by pointing out the shortcoming of this scheme and negating it openly. Furthermore, the resolution rejected the concept of a United India and stressed the creation of an independent Muslim state. This stance broke the dreams of Congress into pieces. It is undeniable that Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah gave a practical shape to the ideology given by Allama Iqbal. 

“The Hindus and the Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, social customs and literature. They neither inter-marry nor inter-dine, and, indeed, they belong to two different civilizations based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions.”

(Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah)

Critical Analysis 

To critically evaluate, there is no doubt that the Lahore Resolution created a new history of the fate of India and affected millions of the Muslims of the subcontinent. After this resolution, the revolutionary period was started as the Two-Nation Theory was not merely confined to the theory; it had become the thought of every then Muslim in India. The effective leadership of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah inspired the then Muslims of British India and transformed them from a community to a nation. As aptly said by Quaid-e-Azam

No power on earth can undo Pakistan.


In a nutshell, Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, along with the Muslim League leaders and other Muslims of the subcontinent, demanded a separate Muslim state, Pakistan, to secure their cultural, social, and, above all, religious rights. Lahore Resolution became a turning point in the history of the Muslims of India as the scenario before and after Lahore Resolution was utterly different. It taught the zeal for freedom in Muslims. Having passed the Lahore Resolution, the consistent efforts and struggles of the then Muslims proved fruitful and turned the dream of a separate homeland into reality within seven years.

کبھی اے نوجواں مسلم! تدّبر بھی کیا تونے؟
وہ کیا گردوں تھا، تو جس کا ہے اک ٹوٹا ہوا تارا؟   

  (شاعر ملت, علامہ محمد اقبال) 

About Miss Arooj Nadeem:

Miss Arooj Nadeem is a famous pharmacist by profession. She has been engaged in research in the field of pharmacy for years. To let people of the world know about medicines and health, she started learning writing by joining Sir Syed Kazim Ali. She is also a CSS & PMS aspirant. After learning creative writing, she has begun solving past paper questions on the guidelines given by Sir Syed Kazim Ali, Miss Zaineb Azam, and Sir Rameez Ch. to help thousands of CSS and PMS aspirants. She is trying to solve all the CSS and PMS past papers with the help of Sir Kazim’s students, who qualified for the exams or scored the highest marks.

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