Write a comprehensive note on unemployment in Pakistan: Social, political, and economic impacts

Write a comprehensive note on unemployment in Pakistan: Social, political, and economic impacts

Solved by Mutahar Iftikhar

PMS Solved Pakistan Affairs Past Paper 2020 | What are the main causes of the energy crisis in Pakistan? What measures do you suggest to address it? PMS 2020

Question’s Breakdown:

The examiner has divided the question into two parts, so you must give relevant weightage to each part. It would be best to briefly account for unemployment and its determinants in Pakistan after introducing the subject matter. Then, elaborate on its significant social, political, and economic impacts one by one. Hereafter, you must incorporate your critical analysis before ending the question through a brief conclusion, simultaneously maintaining the coherence and relevance to the subject matter.

The answer is solved on the given pattern, which Sir Syed Kazim Ali teaches to his students, who consistently score the maximum because of their attempting the questions. The content is based on historical facts taught by Sir Rameez Ch.


1- Introduction

Overpowering and overshadowing all other concerns Pakistan faces today, unemployment has become the most disturbing fact of the country. It has eroded the socio-economic fabric, leaving the country in social, political, and economic turmoil.

2- Current situation

  • Above 6% unemployment rate 
  • About 7 million jobless youth
  • Substantial brain drainage 
  • Absence of a counter plan

3- Determinants of unemployment

  • Deteriorating quality of education 
  • Burgeoning population
  • Ebbing aggregate growth rate
  • Declining Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)
  • Sky-rocketing inflation

4- Social impacts

  • Swelling discrepancies with degradation of moral standards
  • Increasing crime rate with severe social and psychological stress

5- Political impacts

  • Hunger turning into anger with protests and armed violence
  • Public discontentment and people-state gap

6- Economic impacts

  • Waste of significant human capital
  • Inconsiderate usage of the country’s natural resources

7- Critical Analysis

8- Conclusion

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Answer to the Question


Unemployment has assumed the centre stage as the most crucial issue- overarching and, in some ways, overpowering all other concerns Pakistan faces today. The unemployment crisis has multiple roots in the country: burgeoning population, declining quality education, and ebbing growth rate. Moreover, it has large scale social, political, and economic consequences ranging from social discrepancies and psychological stress to increasing crime rate and armed violence. Unemployment has eroded the state’s socio-economic fabric, hurting the average individual impacting everyday life. Inauspiciously, in Pakistan, unemployment is rising, and its consequences are becoming more apparent steadily. The rise in suicide, crime rates, and violent protests- coupled with political indecisiveness and large-scale brain drainage- are some manifestations heralding the severity of the crisis. This answer elaborates the current unemployment situation in Pakistan and its major determinants, explaining its socio-economic and political impacts.

According to the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (PBS), Pakistan’s unemployment rate is around 6%, and there are nearly 7 million young people with no way to earn a livelihood. The actual numbers may be even higher; that presents a gloomy picture of the country’s future. Due to various reasons, the government remains unable to create the desired number of jobs. Therefore, according to the Labour Force Survey of PBS, the employment generation rate has remained near 1.2 million jobs per annum. However, at the minimum, 2 million jobs per annum are needed to meet the demands of the unemployed youth of Pakistan.  

It is challenging to point out a single source rather the widespread unemployment is the compounded outcome of the multiple factors: first, deteriorating quality of education in the country; next to it, exploding population; along with them, ebbing aggregate growth rate on micro and macro-economic level; moreover, declining foreign direct investments (FDIs); and, finally, sky-rocketing inflation pushing more and more people below the line of minimum subsistence. Moreover, it is debatable which factor contributes more towards the crisis; nevertheless, they all directly or indirectly impact the country’s unemployment scenario. Unfortunately, all the elements revealed above show negative progress in Pakistan, consequently pushing the country into the ever-expanding vortex of unemployment.  

Social impacts

The impacts of widespread unemployment are rife in society. With decreasing opportunities for the educated young people to make their ends meet, a wave of hopelessness is creeping among them. With no apparent means to earn livelihood to run their homes, they are forced to spend their lives in abject poverty. Consequently, the disgruntled young people use unfair ways to feed the mouths dependent on them only because they are unable to find a decent job. Moreover, as it is aptly said, “A hungry man is a mad man; he does not see what is right and legal, rather what fulfils his and his family’s needs.” The moral, ethical values are the first victim of the unemployed, hungry man. In this way, social discrepancies lead to a heightened crime rate in the community, leaving a stressed, psychologically disturbed society. Hence, ongoing unemployment turns society upside down, destroying the very fundamentals of humanity.

Political impacts

Besides social impacts, the political effects of unemployment result in social unrest, violent protests, and public discontentment. Theoretically, a state is responsible for its people’s bread, residence, clothes, and security. When it fails to fulfil its duties of creating opportunities for the people to earn even the minimum subsistence, it leaves no reason for people to believe in the state. Accordingly, political unrest is followed by protests and armed violence, leaving the state political paralysis. Moreover, the increasing fissure between the public and the state makes the country more prone to fifth-generation warfare. Hence, a robust political environment in the country is highly dependent on the prosperity of its people.  

Economic impacts

The miserable state of the country’s economy is, directly or indirectly, linked to the unemployment crisis. The shortage of opportunities to earn livelihood for young people forms the air of hopelessness, forcing them to move to another place to find opportunities. This large-scale brain drain is the potential human capital loss for Pakistan. Besides, losing the best talents available in the country leaves it incapable of exploiting its natural resources in the most efficient way possible. For an illustration, the graduates with honorary degrees in Pakistan look abroad for a bright future; thus, the country needs to import expertise and technologies to run the country, indeed a dismal situation. Henceforward, a comprehensive plan must be put in place to provide emerging talents and ample opportunities to grow and prosper.

Critical Analysis

Food, clothing, and shelter are the necessities a person needs to live an honourable life. He works day and night tirelessly to get them, earning the amount he requires to satisfy his needs. If there is no place and no job for him to work, social, political, and economic anomalies find their place in the minds of the jobless. That inflicts high short-term and long-term costs on the country, slowly ripping its socio-economic fabric apart.


 In a nutshell, the prevalent unemployment crisis in Pakistan has eroded the socio-economic fabric, leaving the country in social, political, and economic turmoil. With no emphasis on tackling its determinants, it is expected to worsen. For instance, poverty, crime rate, political crisis, and economic exploitation are dreadful manifestations of joblessness, resulting in the erosion of social harmony, loss of immense human capital, and destruction of political structures. Consequently, individual economic instability leads to a major debacle derailing the country of its path to peace and prosperity. Conversely, fixing the unemployment problem can have unimaginable benedictions for the country. 

About Mutahar Iftikhar

Mutahar Iftikhar, a proud student of Sir Syed Kazim Ali, writes on a range of topics pertaining to competitive examinations and has also completed his creative writing course from Howfiv.

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