National Integration in Pakistan: Challenges and Way Forwards


PMS Ministerial Solved Essays | National Integration in Pakistan: Challenges and Way Forwards

This PMS Ministerial essay is attempted by Naseer Ahmad on the given pattern, which Sir Syed Kazim Ali teaches to his students, who have consistently been qualifying their CSS, and PMS essays. Sir Syed Kazim Ali has been Pakistan’s top English writing and CSS, PMS essay and precis coach with the highest success rate of his students. The essay is uploaded to help other competitive aspirants learn and practice essay writing techniques and patterns.

How To Attempt 25-Marks PMS Ministerial Essay?

Unlike CSS or PMS essays, the essays asked in the PMS ministerial or any descriptive examinations in Pakistan are of 25-marks. All you need to qualify for the PMS ministerial essay paper is to understand the topic, create an outline displaying the proper plan of your essay and write an introduction precisely carrying the thesis statement. An introductory paragraph of such essays is a 150- to 200-word paragraph that gives your examiner a quick overview of your essay and its organization. It should express your thesis (or central idea) and your key points. Remember, the introductory paragraph is a concise summary of the essay, upon which your success standstill. However, the body of your essay will develop and explain these ideas much more thoroughly. As you will see in the solved essay below, the proportion of your introduction that you dedicate to each kind of information and the sequence of that information might vary, depending on the nature and genre of the essay you select. Nevertheless, in some cases, some of this information is implied rather than stated explicitly. For better preparation, revise my lectures on how to attempt a 20 or 25 marks essay, write its outline and introduction and prove your arguments with relevant evidence in the essay’s body paragraphs. 


1- Introduction

  • ✓ The higher the feeling of oneness, the stronger the unity of a nation
  • ✓ Political instability, misinterpretation of ideology, and separatist movements are the significant fault lines making fragile the national integration in Pakistan.
  • ✓ It is high time Pakistanis must promote national integration, as Ibn-e- Khuldon claims that social cohesion determines the decline and rise of nations.

2- What does National Integration mean?  

  • ✓ A centripetal social force that develops a sense of oneness among the different individuals and groups of society.

3- What are the pioneering roles of National Integration?

  • ✓ Social Harmony
  • ✓ Economic Development
  • ✓ Political stability

4- What agents are jeopardizing the National Integration in Pakistan?

  • Ethnic and Provincial Differences
    • Case in point: The rising slogans of Punjabis, Balochis, Sindhis, and Pashtuns, instead of Pakistanis, have dismantled the national integration in the country.
  • Religious and Sectarian Divisions
    • Case in point: Although Islam is the state’s religion, there are sectarian differences between various sects, such as Sunni, Barelvi, and Shia Muslims.
  • Insurgencies and Separatist Movements
    • Case in point: The presence of insurgent groups, such as the Balochistan Liberation Army (BLA) and Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) has exacerbated the situation.
  • Wrong interpretation of Ideology
    • Case in point: A tug of war exists between secular and religious parties regarding the interpretation of the ideology of Pakistan.
  • Political Instability and Governance Issue
    • Case in point: The latest value of political stability in Pakistan from 2021 is -1.67 points (-2.5 weak; 2.5 strong), reported by the World Bank.

5- Remedial steps to strengthen National Integration in Pakistan

  • To promote mass participation across the nation
  • To  ensure good governance in the country
  • To implement the Single National Curriculum in letter and spirit
  • To commemorate Ramadan and Eid on the same day
  • To air programs on national integration on various channels

6- Critical analysis

7- Conclusion

National integration refers to the phenomenon of fostering unity, harmony, and a feeling of oneness transcending differences such as language, religion, ethnicity, and regional disparities. By embracing the values of mutual respect, understanding, and cooperation, national integration paves the way for a cohesive and resilient nation, as it did for the Muslims of undivided India. Contrarily, the social differences and contradictions plunge society into the pitfalls of isolation, intolerance, segregation, and slavery, abetting them to be the passengers of separate boats, as it happened in the form of Bengal. The clash between Nawab Siruj-ud-Doalah and Mir Jafer 1757 handed over the steering of the state to the East Indian Company. As far as Pakistan is concerned, national integration has been promoted in letter but not in spirit. Ethnic and provincial differences, insurgencies and separatist movements, wrong interpretation of ideology, and above all, political instability and bad governance have made the national integration fragile and skinny as a termite does a piece of wood. And this dilapidated national integrity has given birth to many menaces in the state: prioritization of personal interest over national interest, the promotion of favouritism and nepotism, and a smooth path for external hostile agents. As a result, development, innovations, and creativity have literally come to ebb.  However, the situation can be transformed into an opportunity by fairly interpreting the ideology, airing programs and anthems on national integration on social media platforms and TV channels, and establishing good governance in the country. It is high time Pakistanis must promote national integration to fight against national as well as international threats. This essay delineates the horrible challenges, coupled with the recommendations, to national integration in Pakistan. 

“We are now all Pakistanis–not Balochis, Pathans, Sindhis, Bengalis, Punjabis, and so on–and as Pakistanis we must feel, behave and act, and we should be proud to be known as Pakistanis and nothing else.”                                                                             

(Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah)

National integration refers to a centripetal social force that develops a sense of oneness among the different individuals and groups of society. It involves promoting social, cultural, economic, and political integration within a country, regardless of differences in religion, language, ethnicity, or regional backgrounds. National integration aims to establish a strong bond and mutual understanding among citizens, creating a harmonious society based on equality, respect, and cooperation.

National integration is the emblem of national security. It bitterly defeats all those malicious eyes that plan conspiracies against the stability of a nation. It promotes social harmony, brotherhood, and oneness. Also, it is the guarantor of political stability and peace within a country, and above all, it motivates the citizen to work for the nation. Countries, where biases, ethnicity, and sectarianism exist, take no longer to split. The disintegration of erstwhile East Pakistan is a crystal clear example of sectarianism and alienation from Pakistan.

It is national integration that brings all the citizens under one umbrella; consequently, they become as strong as a rock, and no other nation can beat him easily. But a time comes, this bond faces some tremendous challenges hitting it below the belt. The same case is with national integration in Pakistan. Many challenges have dilapidated the national integrity of Pakistan since its inception.

  First, ethnic and provincial differences have risen across the country. The rising slogans of Punjabis, Balochis, Sindhis, and Pashtuns, instead of Pakistanis, have dismantled the national integration in the country. History witnesses when there was only a single slogan: We want Pakistan. Fortunately, they achieved their goal. However, over time, the ethnic and provincial differences started growing. And today, people are more concerned about their provinces rather than their country.

Second, religious and sectarian divisions have left no stone unturned to weaken national integration. Although Islam is the state’s religion, enshrined in Article 2 of the Constitution, there are sectarian differences between various sects such as Sunni, Barelvi, and Shia Muslims. Everyone is trying to highlight his own turban. Unfortunately, no one realizes that it is due to Pakistan, which has granted us the freedom of religion. And no one is prohibited from conducting his religious duties. Thus, it is the need of the hour to strengthen the ties of nationality; otherwise, conspiracies against the beloved nation may prevail.

Third, insurgencies and separatist movements have been the inherent traits in the country. The presence of insurgent groups, such as the Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) and Baloch separatist organizations, has carried out numerous attacks targeting security forces, civilians, and infrastructure. This has resulted in loss of lives, displacement of populations, and damage to property. Consequently, the military operations conducted by the Pakistani government in the tribal areas and Balochistan province have forced many people to flee their homes, seeking refuge in safer areas.

Fourth, a horrible contradiction exists between secular and religious parties while interpreting the ideology of Pakistan. Each group consolidates its argument referring to the speech of the founder of Pakistan. On the one hand, the conservative group claims that Pakistan has been achieved in the name of Islam. Thus, religion should be placed on top. On the flip side, the other group says during his speech Quaid-e-Azam said that Pakistan had nothing to do with religion; it was a personal matter. This contradiction is claimed to be one of the reasons delaying the formulation of the Constitution.

Finally, political instability and governance issues have abruptly changed the direction of national integration. People have started making their own parties based on territory, ideology, or caste. Shockingly, the acceptance of political failure is considered against the glory of the party. The runner-up party starts the allegation of rigging. The latest value of political stability in Pakistan from 2021 is -1.67 (-2.5 weak; 2.5 strong) points, reported by the World Bank, which is a wake-up call for Pakistanis.

Having a keen understanding of the significance of national integration, it is imperative to take measures to cultivate it. Thus, promoting inclusive governance structures, democratic practices, and participatory decision-making processes that give voice and representation to all sections of society, irrespective of their backgrounds, would show a positive ray to the deprived and isolated territories. It is not only the country of people living in cosmopolitan cities; rather, every citizen has the right to participate in state affairs.

The best way forward for the promotion of national harmony and integration is through good governance, the essence of all. For decades now, the Pakistani state and society is suffering because of bad governance and mismanagement at all levels. Issues like timely provision of justice, education facilities and health facilities are most important to be addressed on priority. Through good governance, these crucial aspects can be addressed to end the social unrest prevailing in Pakistani society.

Going towards the immediate policy, the implementation of a Single National Curriculum in its true sense is another recommended step, which not only would flourish national integration but would also give birth to a mass having the same educational background and mentality. Additionally, it touches the core section of the country: the youth.

Following the single national curriculum, the nationwide commemoration of religious festivals- Ramadan and Eid- is an antidote to nip the national disintegration. Being the citizens of the same territory, the difference between haves and have-nots, which is fasting or commemorating Eid, certainly extends the gap of national integration. Thus, the government must endeavour to bring all the religious heads to the same table to ensure national cohesion.

Media has a huge responsibility for shaping public opinion and educating people. In the era of the media explosion, it can be a real agent of peace and war. What Pakistan needs today is serious, unbiased and patriotic media promoting national integration and not further fanning the fires of division and hatred. Today, in the era of technology, almost every citizen has access to mobile phones, and everyone scrolls down the newsfeed at least ten times a day. Thus, this mind-transforming tool should be used to cultivate national integrity in Pakistan.

Critically, there is a dire need to promote national integrity in the country, and it is the fundamental element on which the edifice of national security standstills. The more a nation disperses, the more it becomes prone to internal as well as external threats. The national disintegration has bitterly impacted Pakistan socially, politically, and economically.

Concisely, national integration is the core of a nation. In Pakistan, it has become prone to many challenges like political instability, sectarianism, fundamentalism, and the list goes on and on. Thus, it is imperative to take sagacious and pragmatic measures as soon as possible. The state, education institutions, religious platforms, and civil societies, in fact, every individual must try to promote national integration in full swing. Eventually, Pakistanis must not ignore Ibn-e- Khuldun’s saying that the integrity of Asbiyah- feeling of oneness- is the existence of a state, and vice versa.

PMS Ministerial Solved Past Papers’ Essays

1-Good Governance (2010)
2-Islam and Brotherhood of Mankind (2010)
3-Literature is the Essence of Life (2010)
4-Role of Responsible Media (2010)
5-A Bird in Hand is Worth Two in the Bush (2016)
6-He Who Opens a School Door, Closes a Prison (2016)
7-Local Government is the Base of a Successful Democratic System (2016)
8-Clean Environment is Good Environment (2016)
9-Human Resource Development is a Key to Progress and Prosperity (2019)
10-High Growth Rate in Population is Adversely Affecting our Economic Progress (2019)
11-Public School System in Pakistan (2019)
12-Importance of Preventive Healthcare (2019)
13-National Integration (2021)
14-Of All Forms of Servitude, the Intellectual is the Most Degrading. Expand This Statement by Showing its Complete Significance and also Attempt to Justify or Disprove it. (2021)
15-Advantages and Disadvantage of Facebook (2021)
16-Single National Curriculum: Prospects and Problems (2021)

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