Human Rights in the Light of Sermon of Farewell Pilgrimage

CSS Solved Islamiat Past Papers | Human Rights in the Light of Sermon of Farewell Pilgrimage

The following question of Islamiat is solved by Miss Ayesha Irfan, the highest scorer in CSS Islamiat. Moreover, the question is attempted on the same pattern taught by Sir Syed Kazim Ali to his students, scoring the highest marks in compulsory subjects for years. This solved past paper question is uploaded to help aspirants understand how to crack a topic or question, how to write relevantly, what coherence is, and how to include and connect ideas, opinions, and suggestions to score the maximum.


1- Introduction

2- Definition of human rights

3- A brief overview of the Sermon of Farewell Pilgrimage

4- Human Rights with Correlation of Farewell Sermon of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)

  • ✓Right of Equality
  • ✓Right of Justice
  • ✓Right to guard Dignity and Respect
  • ✓Protection of women’s rights
  • ✓Right of Welfare
  • ✓Right of Freedom of Religion
  • ✓Provision of Social Welfare

5- Critical analysis

6- Conclusion


The Farewell Pilgrimage sermon, delivered by the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) during His final pilgrimage in 632 CE, holds immense significance in Islamic tradition. This sermon encompasses numerous teachings and principles that are relevant to the concept of human rights. Unlike any other speech, Khutba hajj-tul-wida (farewell sermon), captures the ethos of Islam. It provides Muslims with a great lens for viewing the religion of peace. While focusing on the fundamental touchstones of faith, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), in the final sermon, gives a universal message and sheds light on various aspects of human rights including equality, peace, justice, non-violence, forgiveness, the rights of women, the sanctity of property and life, and the teachings of the pillars of Islam.

Definition of Human rights

According to The United Nations, “Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, regardless of race, sex, nationality, ethnicity, language, religion, or any other status.”

It includes the right to life and liberty, freedom from slavery and torture, freedom of opinion and expression, the right to work and education, and many more.  It must be highlighted that everyone is entitled to these rights without discrimination.

However, the way Islam looks at human rights is special because it covers a lot of aspects that are equally relevant and unchanged since the last 1400 years. They are divine rules and laws that are granted by God and no legislative assembly in the world, or any government on earth, has the right or authority to make any amendment or change in the rights conferred by God. Moreover, what makes Islamic human rights different is that they come naturally when people have strong faith, do good deeds, and behave well in society, following what they believe is guidance from God.

A brief overview of the Sermon of Farewell Pilgrimage

Prophet Muhammad (SAW) delivered the farewell sermon in the Uranah Valley of Mount Arafat in Makkah, on the 9th of Dhul-Hijjah. The words of the Messenger (SAW) of Allah SWT were relatively concise and clear. It is a human rights declaration in well-versed and written form. It is one of history’s first and most comprehensive charters of human rights.  It completely covers all the important aspects of the rights of humans.

Human Rights with the Correlation of the Farewell Sermon of Prophet Muhammad

a- Equality

The Prophet’s sermon emphasized the equality of all believers, regardless of their race, ethnicity, or social status. In this temporary world, humans are judged based on their colour, race, religion, caste, and socio-economic status. This creates an imbalance in society. As humans, we tend to judge people based on their physical attributes and not what their heart or soul has to offer. He (PBUH) stated:

 “All mankind is from Adam and Eve. An Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab, nor does a non-Arab have any superiority over an Arab; a white has no superiority over a black, nor does a black have any superiority over a white; none have superiority over another except by piety and good action.”

This proclamation of equality serves as a foundational principle of human rights, affirming that all individuals, regardless of their background, possess inherent worth and dignity.               

b- Justice

Justice is a core component of human rights. In his sermon, the Prophet (PBUH) emphasised the importance of justice by saying,

 “O people, your Lord is one, and your father is one. There is no superiority for an Arab over a non-Arab nor for a non-Arab over an Arab, nor a black over a white, nor a white over a black. None have superiority over another except by piety and good action.”

This underscores the need for fair and just treatment of all individuals, regardless of their identity, and reflects the Islamic principle that justice should be upheld for everyone.

Justice is an important tool for the character building of a society. Every pillar and sector of a society is based on Justice. The ill that prevails in society can only be diminished by the power of justice. ImamIbn Taymiyyah said

“Justice is an obligation, both in the sense of a communal obligation and in the sense of an individual obligation.

c- Dignity and Respect

The Prophet’s words in the sermon emphasised the sanctity of life and the importance of treating all individuals with respect and dignity. He (PBUH) stated:

“Your lives and your property are sacred, like the sacredness of this day, this month, and this city.”

This declaration underscores the fundamental human right to life and the importance of respecting the property and dignity of every person.

d- Protection of Women’s Rights

The Prophet (PBUH) highlighted the rights and dignity of women, as women deserve equal rights as men and shouldn’t be treated as their property.

He (PBUH) stated:

Fear Allah concerning women! Verily you have taken them on the security of Allah, and intercourse with them has been made lawful unto you by the words of Allah.”

Allah mentioned in the Holy Quran:

“And they (women) have rights similar to those (of men) over them in kindness.”

(Quran, 2:228)

These verses are a reminder of the importance of gender equality and the protection of women’s rights, emphasising their dignity and security within society.                    

e- Economic Welfare

Socio-economic instability is when opportunity and wealth aren’t distributed equally within society. This results in making the poor poorer and the rich richer. Economic rights are an essential aspect of human rights. The Prophet (PBUH) addressed economic issues in his (PBUH) sermon by prohibiting usury (interest) and emphasising the importance of fair economic transactions. He (PBUH) said,

 “All usury is abolished, but your capital belongs to you.”

This reflects the concern for economic justice and the elimination of exploitative practices that infringe upon individuals’ economic rights.

Therefore, Sheikh Abd al-Rahman al-Saadi said,

 “Economic justice in Islam means ensuring that wealth is distributed fairly, with concern for the needs of the less fortunate.”

f- Freedom of Religion

The Prophet’s (PBUH) sermon included a call for freedom of religion when he declared,

“Let those who are present convey this message to those who are absent. It may be that some of those to whom it is conveyed will understand it better than some of those who have heard it.”

In the Holy Quran Allah also mentions:

There shall be no compulsion in [acceptance of] the religion.”

(Quran, 2:256)

This message implies the right to religious freedom and the importance of conveying the message without coercion or force.

g- Social Welfare

The Farewell Pilgrimage sermon also touched upon social welfare and the responsibility of society to care for its members. The Prophet (PBUH) said:

“Beware! Do not oppress one another, do not sin against one another, and do not envy one another. O Allah’s worshipers! Be brothers.”

Charity holds major importance in Islam, it is a highly appraisable form of worship. It benefits society at its highest by providing society with its basic needs.

In this regard, Sheikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi:

Charity and social welfare are deeply ingrained in Islamic tradition, and Muslims are encouraged to care for the less fortunate.”

This underscores the importance of social solidarity, cooperation, and the duty to alleviate the suffering of others.

Critical Analysis

The farewell sermon of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) carries profound historical and theological significance. It serves as a guide for contemporary Muslims to follow the right path. It serves as a cornerstone of Islamic ethics and a testament to the Prophet’s vision for a peaceful society. The sermon emphasises universal brotherhood, equality, social justice, human rights, women’s rights, and religious pluralism. It also emphasises peace, tolerance, and respect for diversity in religious beliefs that mirror the global call for interfaith harmony and peaceful coexistence. Thus, following the path exemplified in this last sermon, Muslims can create social justice, interfaith harmony, and a peaceful society.

Conclusion of the Sermon

In conclusion, the Farewell Pilgrimage sermon of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) serves as a profound source of guidance on human rights. It emphasises equality, justice, dignity, and the protection of various rights, including gender rights, economic rights, and religious freedom. These principles outlined in the sermon continue to resonate in contemporary discussions on human rights and offer valuable insights into building a just and equitable society.

CSS Solved Past Papers’ Essays

Looking for the last ten years of CSS and PMS Solved Essays and want to know how Sir Kazim’s students write and score the highest marks in the essays’ papers? Then, click on the CSS Solved Essays to start reading them.

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CSS 2023 Solved Islamiat

2-What is the Quranic argument on life Hereafter? What are its impacts on the individual and collective life of a human being?
3-Discuss the Holy Prophet’s (PBUH) role as a Model for Military Strategy.
4-Elaborate on the rights of daughters granted by Islam and how these are denied by Muslims in the contemporary world.
5-Defind Ijma (consensus) and explain its different kinds. Can legislation by a parliament of an Islamic state be regarded as a valid consensus?
6-Analyze the Charter of Madina as a social contract.
7-What are the motives of extremism in Pakistan? How can society get rid of extremism by following the teachings of Islam?
8-Write Notes on the following:
a. Human rights in the light of the Sermon of Farewell Pilgrimage.
b. Social Justice in an Islamic Society.

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