CSS Solved Islamiat Past Papers | Elaborate on the Rights of Daughters Granted by Islam and How These are Denied by Muslims in the Contemporary World.
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In this question, the examiner has asked the following points
A- Rights of daughters in Islam
B- How these rights are denied by the Muslims in the contemporary world
Before hitting the demand of the examiner, we will first give an overview of the situation of daughters before the advent of Islam, then the social, political, and economic rights which are granted to the daughters by Islam and how these rights are denied by the Muslims by giving a contemporary times analysis.
2- Position of women in Islam
3- Miserable situation of daughters before Islam
4- Rights of daughters in Islam
- ✓Social rights
- ✓Gender equality
- ✓Right to accept or reject marriage proposals
- ✓Respect and dignity: the basic right of daughters
- ✓Education and training of daughters
- ✓Right of Life
- ✓Equal social opportunities and benefits
- ✓Protection of chastity of daughters
- ✓Right of security at home
- ✓ Economic rights
- ✓Inheritance Rights of Daughters
- ✓Right to join a profession to serve
- ✓Daughters in Islam free from the economic burden
5- Negation of daughter’s rights by the Muslims in the contemporary era
- ✓Abandoning the hereditary rights
- ✓No right to choose life partner: Forced marriage dilemma
- ✓The power to Divorce is with the Husband
- ✓Female infanticide
- ✓”Honor Killings” of women
- ✓Gender inequality
6- Critical analysis
Islam being a complete code of life has laid down some universal fundamental rights for humanity as a whole, which are to be observed and respected under all circumstances, irrespective of men and women. In Islam, human rights have been conferred by God, no legislative assembly in the world or any government on earth has the right or authority to make any amendment or change in the rights conferred by Allah. The status of women in Islam is one of the crucial topics and dominant themes in the modern era. Moreover, a woman has an honored position. She has special respect, love, affection, and gentle feeling along with her legal and civil rights. She is seen as a compassionate mother, a beloved wife as well as an affectionate daughter. Before the advent of Islam, daughters were treated like animals. But Islam gave such fabulous rights to women that have not been given before. Likewise, Islam recognizes all the basic human, social, economic, and political rights of daughters. Islam has specified these rights and responsibilities in the Holy Quran and many sayings of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Unfortunately, these socio-political and economic rights of daughters are denied by the Muslims in the contemporary era, which has created chaos in the Muslim world.
Position of women in Islam:
Islam has blessed women with special rights that had not been provided to them before the advent of Islam. The religion Islam gives respect to women as a mother, sisters, wives, and daughters in all social, political, and economic dimensions. The position of women is elaborated in Quran as
وَلَهُنَّ مِثۡلُ الَّذِىۡ عَلَيۡهِنَّ بِالۡمَعۡرُوۡفِ
“Women have the same rights against their men as men have against them“
There is also the commandment about dealing with women in the Holy Quran
“Treat them fairly”
The Holy Prophet PBUH has also stated about it:
“The perfect man is that who has good character and behaves well with his woman”
“The most precious thing in this world is a woman”
The miserable situation of daughters before Islam
Daughters are the blessing of Allah Almighty. Before the advent of Islam, girls were treated very badly in Arab society. The Father of a daughter used to feel shame when a girl was born to him and they used to bury girls alive to get rid of the shame. At the time of darkness when people used to treat girls very badly, Islam came and gave rights to mothers, sisters, daughters, wives, and especially to little girls who were affected badly.
وَإِذَا بُشِّرَ أَحَدُهُم بِٱلْأُنثَىٰ ظَلَّ وَجْهُهُۥ مُسْوَدًّۭا وَهُوَ كَظِيمٌۭ
“Whenever one of them is given the good news of a baby girl, his face grows gloomy, as he suppresses his rage”
“He hides himself from the people because of the bad news he has received. Should he keep her in disgrace, or bury her in the ground? Evil indeed is their judgment”Al Quran
Rights of Daughters in Islam
Daughters are regarded as a “blessing” in Islam, which shows that Islam has provided a high rank in society. Allah Almighty has the authority to give sons and daughters to the couples to whom he wants. Allah Almighty says in the Noble Quran:
“To Allah belong the dominion of the heavens and the earth; He creates what He wills. He gives to whom He wills female [children], and He gives to whom He wills males. Or He makes them [both] males and females, and He renders whom He wills barren. Indeed, He is Knowing and Competent“
This Ayah of the Holy Quran shows that Allah Almighty has the right or will to give whatever He wants to whom He wants to give. In Islam, there is no difference between men and women as far as their relationship with Allah is concerned, as both are promised the same reward for good conduct and the same punishment for evil conduct. The Quran, in addressing the believers, often uses the expression, ‘believing men and women’ to emphasize the equality of men and women regarding their respective duties, rights, virtues, and merits.
Prophet Muhammad (SAW) had 4 daughters and thought that raising daughters was considered sacred in Islam. Our beloved Prophet Muhammad (SAW) said in one of His hadith about the upbringing of daughters in these words:
“If someone has three daughters and is patient with them and clothes them from his wealth, they will be a shield against Fire for him.”
Hazrat Anas (R.A) reported that the Prophet (SAW) said,
“He who raises two daughters until their puberty will be with me in Paradise like this”, and he symbolized the proximity by showing two of his fingers with a slight gap between them.”
A- Social Rights
Multiple social rights have been granted to the daughters in the religion Islam, which are:
a- Gender equality
A daughter is a blessing and mercy on her parents. Similarly, as a sister, she is someone equal to that of her brother and the parents are ordained to treat them both equally and fairly. The Prophet said:
“I don’t think that a man gets better in faith without loving women better.”
Parents are duty-bound to support and show kindness and justice to their daughters.
Prophet Muhammad said:
“Whosoever has a daughter and he does not bury her alive, does not insult her, and does not favor his son over her, Allah will enter him into Paradise.”
b- Right to accept or reject marriage proposals
In Islam, women have the right to accept or reject marriage proposals and are given the right to even marry a person they like if their parents agree to it. These teachings have unfortunately not been followed, and many a woman doesn’t have the right to marry as per her wishes. A great example of letting a woman decide whether she wants to marry or not is when the Prophet asked Hazrat Fatima before Hazrat Ali demanded her hand. Women are entitled to make their own independent decision to choose their husband and decide the terms of the marriage agreement with him. Likewise, the Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) has said:
“Do not marry a widow until she asks herself, and do not marry a virgin woman until she has permitted”
c- Respect and dignity: the basic right of daughters
Before the advent of Islam, daughters were buried in infancy. Islam forbid such barbaric practices and gave children and daughters the privileges they never had before. The Holy Prophet has said in a Hadith:
“Don’t dislike daughters; no doubt they are (for parents) more caring and loving”
In another Hadith, Hazrat Anas Bin Malik quotes the Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH):
“He who up-brings two girls properly to the age of adolescence, that person will be with me side by side in Heaven”
Mother of the believers, Ayesha, the wife of Allah’s Apostle, may peace be upon him, said: A woman came to me along with her two daughters. She asked me for (charity), but she found nothing with me except one date, so I gave her that. She accepted it and then divided it between her two daughters, and she ate nothing out of that. She then got up and went out, and so did her two daughters. In the meanwhile, Allah’s Apostle, may peace be upon him, visited me, and I narrated to him her story. Thereupon Allah’s Apostle, may peace be upon him, said: He who is involved in the responsibility of bringing up daughters, and he accords benevolent treatment towards them, there would be protection for him against Hell-Fire.
d- Education and training of daughters
Of course, women have certain obligations in bringing up their children that are commensurate to their abilities, and men have complementary obligations to finance, protect and maintain according to their added responsibilities in the family unit. Women make up more than half of the human population and perform an important role in the development of society. This role of women in human society is recognized in Islam. Islam urges both men and women to become aware and acquire the knowledge that they need in life. It has not made any distinction between the two sexes. The Holy Quran has elaborated a prayer for all of us in this regard:
رَّبِّ زِدْنِى عِلْمًۭاSurah Ta’ha
“O my Lord! Increase me in knowledge”
Education is not only a right but also a responsibility of all males and females. Prophet
طَلَبُ الْعِلْمِ فَرِيضَةٌ عَلَى كُلِّ مُسْلِمٍ
“Seeking knowledge is mandatory for every Muslim (“Muslim” is used here in the Generic meaning, which includes both males and females).
e- Right of Life
The Islamic teachings uphold the sanctity of human life (both for women and men) and advise its followers to respect this right to the maximum extent. The Holy Quran perceives the killings of an individual to be that of the entire humanity. It only allows Islamic courts as the competent authority to give verdicts for the killing of someone as punishment. A consensus exists amongst all the famous Islamic jurist scholars to this effect. Allah says:
وَلَا تَقْتُلُوا۟ ٱلنَّفْسَ ٱلَّتِى حَرَّمَ ٱللَّهُ
“Not take life which Allah has made sacred”
In another place Allah has said:
“Indeed lost are they who have killed their children, foolishly, without knowledge”
f- Equal social opportunities and benefits
Men and women have similar obligations and responsibilities to reform and correct society to the best of their capability. Men and women shoulder the responsibility of enjoining good and forbidding evil equally. There is no difference between the two sexes in terms of qualifications in humanity, and each complements the other as the two genders of the species. Islam has abolished and abrogated all the previous unjust laws that demoted women as inferior in quality and nature. In the Holy Quran, both sexes are described together:
إِنَّ ٱلۡمُسۡلِمِينَ وَٱلۡمُسۡلِمَٰتِ وَٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ وَٱلۡمُؤۡمِنَٰتِ وَٱلۡقَٰنِتِينَ وَٱلۡقَٰنِتَٰتِ
“Indeed, the Muslim men and Muslim women, the believing men and believing women, the obedient men and obedient women.”
g- Protection of chastity of daughters
Islam is advised to take all the protective measures to protect women from excess temptation, which are explained in Islamic jurisprudence. Some of them are related to women’s attire like loose-fitting body wrapping and head covering.
“O Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks over their bodies. That is better that they should be known so as not to be annoyed and molested. Allah is ever forgiving, Most Merciful”
This verse clearly states that the reason the woman is obligated to cover herself is to distinguish her to be identified as a respectable Muslim lady and to avoid the annoying glances and glares of the men.
At some other points, Allah Almighty has elaborated it in an advising manner.
“O Prophet! Tell the believing men to lower their gaze and guard their chastity. That is purer for them. Surely Allah is All-Aware of what they do”
“And tell the believing women to lower their gaze and guard their chastity and not to reveal their adornments”Al Quran
Moreover, the beauty of Islam lies in bashfulness, as described by the Holy Prophet PBUH:
“Verily for every religion there is a characteristic, and the characteristic of Islam is Shyness and Haya”
h- Right of security at home
Islam has also emphasized the protection of women at home. Allah has said in the Holy Quran:
“You, who have believed, do not enter houses other than your own houses until you ascertain welcome and greet their inhabitants. That is best for you; perhaps you will be reminded”Surah Al noor
Similarly, the order in the Holy Quran is:
“When you (believers) ask women for something, ask them from behind a barrier. This is purer for your hearts and theirs”
B- Economic Rights
The economic rights given to women, especially daughters, include:
a- Inheritance Rights of daughters
Islam has given inheritance rights to women in their capacities as mothers, sisters, daughters, wives, and even as a baby. They all are entitled to get a fixed share in the property of their ancestors. Allah has said:
لِّلرِّجَالِ نَصِيبٌۭ مِّمَّا تَرَكَ ٱلْوَٰلِدَانِ وَٱلْأَقْرَبُونَ
“For men, there is a share in what their parents and close relatives leave”
وَلِلنِّسَآءِ نَصِيبٌۭ مِّمَّا تَرَكَ ٱلْوَٰلِدَانِ وَٱلْأَقْرَبُونَ
“And for women, there is a share in what their parents and close relatives leave”
مِمَّا قَلَّ مِنْهُ أَوْ كَثُرَ ۚ نَصِيبًۭا مَّفْرُوضًۭاSurah Al Nisa
“Whether it is little or much. These are obligatory shares”
b- Right to join a profession to serve
Islam permits daughters to work outside the house. Hazrat Shifa bint-e-makhzomia served as lady police at the time of Caliph Umar (R.A). Similarly, Allah speaks of those two women who were seen by Moses (R.A) in the following words
“And when he arrived at the water (a well) of Median, he found there a group of men watering (their flocks), and beside them he found two women who were keeping back (their flocks). He said: ―What is the matter with you? They said: We cannot water our flocks until the shepherds take (their flocks). And our father is a very old man. These two women had gone out of their house in compulsion to water their animals because their father was too old to perform this task, in which Hazrat Musa (R.A) helped them out.
c- Daughters in Islam free from the economic burden
Women do not have the responsibility to earn, and they have been relieved from the duty of earning in Islam. She does not have any responsibility to earn for her family. It is upon the male to earn and feed the wife and the children. During the time of the Prophet (PBUH) came a few wives who claimed to be well-off their family and asked if they could give alms and support their family with their money. The Prophet (PBUH) suggested that they have no responsibility to support their family, and whatever they pay for their family itself would be considered a charity. This connotes the huge economic significance women have in Islam and the freedom of responsibility they maintain in Islam.
Negation of daughter’s rights by Muslims in the contemporary era
a- Abandoning of daughter’s Right of Inheritance
Allah Almighty has provided the right of inheritance to women, whether as mother, wife, daughter, and sister. Unfortunately, people do not follow the Islamic rules of inheritance and feel reluctance to give hereditary shares to daughters. According to traditional tribal customs in Pakistan, sons tend to enjoy receiving almost all the assets left by their parents by giving no share to daughters. Being daughters, women are expected to forgo their right of inheritance in favor of their brothers. Their claim to get their inheritance share might result in their desertion from the parental side. Unfortunately, dowry is often considered as a daughter’s share of inheritance, which is wrong under Islamic provisions.
(Attitude toward women’s right of inheritance in Pakistan)
b- The power to Divorce is with the Husband
A wife can dissolve her marriage unilaterally only if the right of divorce has been unconditionally delegated to her by the husband in the marriage contract or the nikahnama. It is a common practice that the delegated right of divorce is deleted before the nikahnama is presented to the bride for signatures in Islamic states.
c- “Honor Killings” of women
Femicide has become an unfortunate trend in society and women were killed in the name of honor by their family members. Aljazeera reported that Women were murdered in Turkey in 2022, 15 women were killed by their fathers, and 13 by their brothers in the name of honor killing. This vicious act is strictly prohibited in Islam because it was the custom before the advent of Islam.
d- Female infanticide
Female infanticide was a well-known custom in the pre-Islamic era, also known as the age of barbarism. With the advent of the seventh century, however, things began to change and the practice became increasingly rare. Yet in this day and age, we find instances of female babies being asphyxiated and buried at the will of their parents. In Pakistan, Shahzaib Khan in the Mianwali region, killed his seven days old daughter in March 2022 because he had the desire for a son and he didn’t even show up to see his daughter at the hospital when she was born.
e- No right to choose life partner: Forced marriage dilemma
The Saudi government recognizes filial “disobedience” as a crime and denies an adult woman the right to live on her own and to marry off her free will. Saudi judges have repeatedly granted fathers the right to interfere arbitrarily in their adult children’s private lives, in serious violation of their right to privacy and to establish families freely, Human Rights Watch said today. Fathers have imprisoned their adult daughters for “disobedience” and prevented their marriage, and have been granted custody over a grandchild without a valid reason, all with the support of the courts.
f- Gender inequality
Gender inequality is a worldwide phenomenon and Muslim countries are no exception to this. Upon returning to power in 2021 in Afghanistan, the Taliban installed one of the world’s most regressive governments, especially regarding women’s rights. The new regime in Kabul started imposing even stricter rules on women in the final weeks of 2022, with a pair of heavy-handed rulings banning them from studying in universities and working for NGOs
g- No freedom of expression
As freedom of expression is a fundamental right of human beings, and it is also granted by Islam to all including women. But unfortunately, it is not practiced in some Muslim states including Syria and Iran. Senior U.S. officials have been increasingly critical of the Iranian government for the brutal treatment of girls and women – including murder, rape, torture, and mass arrests – since the death of Mahsa Amini on Sept. 16, 2022, ignited nationwide protests in Iran.
To cut a long story short, Islam provides the socio-political and economic guidelines to maintain gender equality in the world, but unfortunately, Muslims are falling apart by disobeying the teachings of Islam. Islam has provided those rights to women irrespective of their status as mothers, sisters, wives, and daughters, which have never been provided to them before the advent of Islam. The need of the hour is to follow the teachings of Islam in true letter and spirit to maintain gender equality and to give respect to women across the globe.
In conclusion, the rights of daughters granted by Islam represent a progressive and empowering framework aimed at ensuring their well-being and dignity. These rights include inheritance, financial security, education, and social respect, challenging the norms prevalent in pre-Islamic societies. However, in some contemporary Muslim communities, there are instances where these rights are not fully realized due to cultural, social, and economic factors. Ultimately, by embracing the true spirit of Islamic teachings and challenging discriminatory practices, Muslim societies can ensure that the rights of daughters are respected, fostering a more just and compassionate world for all. This requires collective efforts, ongoing dialogue, and a commitment to upholding the values of Islam in a manner that promotes gender equality and human rights.
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CSS 2023 Solved Islamiat
|2-||What is the Quranic argument on life Hereafter? What are its impacts on the individual and collective life of a human being?|
|3-||Discuss the Holy Prophet’s (PBUH) role as a Model for Military Strategy.|
|4-||Elaborate on the rights of daughters granted by Islam and how these are denied by Muslims in the contemporary world.|
|5-||Defind Ijma (consensus) and explain its different kinds. Can legislation by a parliament of an Islamic state be regarded as a valid consensus?|
|6-||Analyze the Charter of Madina as a social contract.|
|7-||What are the motives of extremism in Pakistan? How can society get rid of extremism by following the teachings of Islam?|
|8-||Write Notes on the following: |
a. Human rights in the light of the Sermon of Farewell Pilgrimage.
b. Social Justice in an Islamic Society.
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