Discuss the Role of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) as a Model for Military Strategist.

Discuss the Role of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) as a Model for Military Strategist.

CSS Solved Islamiat Past Papers | Discuss the Role of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) as a Model for Military Strategist.

The following question of Islamiat is solved by Miss Ayesha Irfan, the highest scorer in CSS Islamiat. Moreover, the question is attempted on the same pattern taught by Sir Syed Kazim Ali to his students, scoring the highest marks in compulsory subjects for years. This solved past paper question is uploaded to help aspirants understand how to crack a topic or question, how to write relevantly, what coherence is, and how to include and connect ideas, opinions, and suggestions to score the maximum.

Question Breakdown

In this question, the examiner has asked about Holy Prophet’s (PBUH) military tactics and how He can act as a model for military strategists. In this question, we will firstly discuss the military strategy and methods of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) that He used in his wars and also advised his companions to follow these military tactics which will act as role models for militants even in the contemporary era.


1- Introduction

2- Holy Prophet (PBUH) as a Role Model

3- Characteristics of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) as military commander and soldier

4- Military principles and strategies of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) before the war

  • ✓ Inclination towards compromise and reconciliation.
  • ✓ Military training of soldiers
  • ✓ Surveillance and espionage
  • ✓ Economic blockade of enemy

5- Military principles during war during the war

  • ✓ Positioning of army
  • ✓ Division of battalions
  • ✓ Rights of non-combatants
  • ✓ Prohibition of the night assault
  • ✓ Prohibition of the immolation of enemy
  • ✓ Ban on destruction
  • ✓ Minimal collateral damage
  • ✓ No Mutilation of dead bodies

6- After war tactics of the Holy prophet SAWW

  • ✓ Ban on the killing of Prisoners of War 
  • ✓ Ban on the killing of an envoy
  • ✓ Prohibition of Breach of Treaty
  • ✓ Principle of the general amnesty

7- Holy Prophet (PBUH) as an ideal military strategist in the contemporary era

8- Testimony by Muslims and non-Muslims

9- Conclusion

Answer to the Question


Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (SAWW) is a role model for human beings across the globe. He (SAWW) is a luminous candle in socio-political, economic, and educational aspects even in the contemporary era. Like other facets, the military aspect of the personality of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) is also unique. During his whole life, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) took part in as many as 26 wars, and in all, he (SAWW) exhibited bravery and excellent military skills. He (SAWW) always led the Muslims from the front and preached that martyrdom was better than turning back on the battlefield. Moreover, He (SAWW) was careful and cognizant of the military preparedness of Muslims and made arrangements for imparting military training to Muslims during peacetime as well. The most important thing is that He (SAWW) has well-defined military tactics about reconciliation with the enemy, attitude toward combatants and non-combatants, and strategies before, during, and after the war. Additionally, The SAWW used some strategies toward the division of battalions and their arrangement and positioning. In a nutshell, He is considered a role model for military strategists for his military tactics to execute the necessary evil of war in a very peaceful way; even these strategists are still valid in contemporary times across the globe.

Holy Prophet (SAWW) as a Role Model:

Hazrat Muhammad SAWW was the last prophet of Allah Almighty and he was sent for the guidance of humanity. He (SAWW) provided a complete code of life to human beings through his advice and actions. He is an everlasting role model for people in all aspects. It has been mentioned in Holy Quran:

لَّقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِي رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَة
“You have indeed in the Messenger of Allah a beautiful pattern (of conduct) for anyone”


Similarly, it is also mentioned in Quran that Holy Prophet (PBUH) is also a symbol of kindness and mercy for humanity across the world. So, everyone can get benefits from the teaching of the beloved Prophet. It is stated in Quran by Allah Almighty:

وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ إِلَّا رَحْمَةً لِّلْعَالَمِينَ
 “O Muhammad, we have not sent you, except as a mercy to the worlds”


Characteristics of the Holy Prophet as Commander or Soldier:

  • Leadership Skills:

The most important quality to fight and win a war is the leadership skills of an army commander. The organization and strategies to arrange and divide the army are mostly formulated by the commander in chief and Hazrat Muhammad SAWW has leadership skills and he (SAWW) did not panic even in critical situations. The case study of Ghazwa Hunanin was an example in this regard when the enemy attacked suddenly and forces of the Holy Prophet (SAWW) in commanding rows flee away, but Holy Prophet (PBUH) fought with bravery and spoke loudly,” I am the messenger of Allah. I am not an imposter. I am a descendent of brave Abdul Muttalib.”

  • Kind Heartedness:

Holy prophet Hazrat Muhammad SAWW was a kind-hearted man towards his companions and even towards his enemies. He (SAWW) always advised his companions and soldiers not to kill and humiliate women, aged persons, children, and those who were non-combatants. After the loss of 70 men in the battle of Uhud, the Prophet wept and prayed for every soldier that died in the way of Allah.

  • Consultation with Advisory Council:

In all matters of war, except the expedition of Hudabiyah, affecting the common interest of the Muslims, the Holy Prophet PBUH always held counseling with his illustrious companions and accepted their advice even when it was contrary to his view, for instance, he (SAWW) did on the eve of the battle of Uhud. Similarly, the consultation with his companions in the case of digging a trench in Ghazwa Ahzab and the idea was given by Hazrat Suleman Farsi (R.A)

  • Respect of Treaties:

He (SAWW) always obeyed the conditions of treaties, which he has done with his enemies. An example of the treaty of Hudabiyah is in front of us when some conditions were not in favor of Muslims, but the Holy Prophet SAWW respected the treaty and its conditional ties. He (PBUH) always focused on fulfilling his promises.

Military Strategies of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)

Holy Prophet has always adopted three different strategies to tackle the situation peacefully. These include:

  1. Military tactics before the war
  2. Strategies during the war
  3. After-war principles

These military strategies are the model tactics for military strategists at all times. By adopting these strategies, the holy prophet has made wars less destructive. He fought almost 26 wars, and only 259 Muslims were martyred, and approximately 1018 non-Muslims were killed in these wars. The testimony has been given by Dr Abdul Rauf Zafar in his book USWA-E-KAMIL as:

“The study of wars fought by the Holy prophet elaborates that wars are not being fought by an excess of army persons and vast resources, but by the determination, courage, proper leadership, and efficient usage of weapons and resources. The Holy Prophet has provided the best example about it that the combination of spiritual and materialistic powers helped to win the wars. In the 21st century, despite having abundant resources, there are still many fault lines in wars that have caused brutality and chaos across the globe and this lack is actually of the military strategies of prophet (SAWW) and piousness.  If someone wants to be victorious, he has to follow the military principles of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)”


1- Military Tactics Before War

HolyProphet PBUH has always defined some military tactics before the war to settle issues peacefully or to prepare His army for war.

  • Inclination Towards Reconciliation:
    Beloved Muhammad (SAWW) gave education about adjustment and reconciliation towards the enemy if he wants to get reconciliation. A case in point in this regard is the example of the treaty of Hudaibiyah of 6th A.H. This act according to the order of the Quran which states that:

وَإِن جَنَحُوا لِلسَّلْمِ فَاجْنَحْ لَهَا   
“And if they incline to peace, then incline to it also”

  • Economic Blockade of Enemy:
    The Tribe of Makkah – an active enemy of the mission of the Prophet (PBUH) and the state of Madina always tried to prevent Muslims from migrating from Makkah to Madina. The prophet (PBUH) countered their moves by threatening an economic blockade. When the people of Makkah learned about the threat to their economic lifeline from Syria, they sent an army to counter the forces of Madinah.
  • Espionage and Surveillance of Enemy:
    It is considered a crucial war strategy for the preparation of war and risk assessment. The Holy Prophet (SAWW) also took practical steps to get information about enemy moves and remained updated according to it. For this purpose, He (PBUH) deployed his detectives in Arabian Peninsula who provided information about enemies. A case in point in this regard is that Holy Prophet sent a group of people to get information about the return of the caravan of Abu-Sufyan at the time of BADR-E-KUBRA.
  • Training of Army:
    The most important thing before the war for a commander is to invest in the training of his army and to establish a strong army with advanced military tactics. In this regard, Holy Prophet SAWW sent his soldiers to neighbouring states of Syria and Ethiopia to learn different military tactics and fighting skills.

2- Strategies During the War:

Holy Prophet PBUH set certain rules to deal enemy during the war and also used some strategies to defeat the enemy. These include

  •  Positioning of the Army:
    Holy Prophet SAWW always arranged different groups of army persons at different points and advised them not to move away from it. These positions are specified following the self-defence and attacking positions of the army. According to the Holy prophet PBUH, there will be five parts of the army which include:
  • Division of Battalions:
    According to the military strategy of the Holy Prophet (SAWW), Battalions were divided into five groups according to their capabilities and military skills. These include:
  1. Infantry
  2. Cavalry regiment
  3. Archers
  4. Luggage carriers
  5. Security personnel
  • Rights of Non-Combatants:
    NON-COMBATANTS are the people who did not participate in war, for example, women, children, aged people, sick men, worshipers, idiots, etc. He was not in favor of killing them and also advised his commanders, including Khalid bin Waleed not to kill them.

“Never kill women and workers in wars”


Specific prohibitions on the methods of warfare were given by the Prophet and the first Caliphs (rulers of the Muslim community) to Muslim warriors as they went into battle. Before departing for the conquest of the Levant, Caliph Abu Bakr told his warriors:

“When you meet your enemies in the fight, behave yourself as befits good Muslims…. If Allah gives you victory, do not abuse your advantages and beware not to stain your swords with the blood of one who yields, neither you touch the children, the women, nor the infirm, also men, whom you may find among your enemies”

  • Rights of Combatants:
    COMBATANTS are those people who participated in wars and fought actively against Muslims. These people, it is allowed to use weapons, but the Holy Prophet (SAWW) also drew boundaries towards dealing with combatants. It has also been decreed that Muslim troops do not have unlimited authority to deal with combatants as they like. There are certain bounds with which they must deal with the combatants of the enemy.
  • Prohibition of Night Assault:
    The Holy Prophet (PBUH) abolished the custom of night assault which the Arabs used to deliver and laid down the rule that the enemy was not to be attacked before dawn. In the war of Khyber, When the Prophet of Allah approached a hostile people at night; he would not attack them till dawn.
  • Prohibition of the Immolation of the Enemy:
    Before the time of the Prophet of Allah, the troops took revenge by burning the enemy alive. The prophet (PBUH) declared these barbaric practices. He stated that

 “No one has the right to put anyone to the torment of fire except he, who [ALLAH] is the creator of fire.”       

  •  Ban on Destruction:
    It is a common habit of invading armies to destroy the corps, lay waste in the fields, massacre the population, burn the houses, etc. Islam, however, declares these practices as evil and unlawful and prohibits them strictly. As depicted in Quran by Allah Almighty:

وَإِذَا تَوَلَّىٰ سَعَىٰ فِي ٱلۡأَرۡضِ لِيُفۡسِدَ فِيها
 “And when he goes away, he strives throughout the land to cause corruption therein”

   وَيُهۡلِكَ ٱلۡحَرۡثَ وَٱلنَّسۡلَۚ
“And destroy crops and animals”

وَٱللَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ ٱلۡفَسَاد
“And Allah does not like acts of mischief” (AL-QURAN)

  • Mutilation of Dead Bodies:
    Islam has strictly prohibited the mutilation of the dead bodies of enemies and to cut their body parts. When the Holy prophet (PBUH) sent his army for any attack, he advised that:

“Do not break promises and never mutilate”

  • Minimizing Collateral Damage:
    Prophet Muhammad is history’s first major figure to condemn collateral damage. His advanced rules of war were established 1400 years ago a yet unmatched humanitarian standard. And herein has the solution to modern conflicts. The Qur’an first describes when fighting is permitted, permission to fight is given to those against whom war is made because they have been wronged.

 “Those who have been driven out from their homes unjustly only because they said, ‘Our Lord is God And if God did not repel some men using others, there would surely have been pulled down temples and churches and synagogues and mosques”


3- After War Principles of the Holy Prophet SAWW:

After the war, whether PBUH won or lost it, followed some principles, which are

  • Ban on the killing of Prisoners of War:
    Generally, a prisoner of war could be, at the discretion of the military leader, executed, freed, ransomed, exchanged for Muslim prisoners, or kept as slaves. Women and children prisoners of war cannot be killed under any circumstances, regardless of their religious convictions, but they may be freed or ransomed. Women who are neither freed nor ransomed by their people were to be kept in bondage. On conquer of Makkah, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) commanded his army as:

 “Do not kill any prisoner of war”

  •  Ban on the Killing of an Envoy:
    The Prophet (PBUH) prohibited the killing of ambassadors. When Ubaidah bin Harith, the emissary of Mussaylimah Kazaab, the false Prophet came and delivered his message, the Prophet (PBUH) observed,

“Had it not been unlawful to kill the emissaries, I would have beheaded you.”

  • Prohibition of Breach of Treaty
    Breach of treaty is the worst crime according to Holy Prophet (PBUH). He condemned mutiny, breach of the treaty, and assault on the partners in the treaty on several occasions. It is also commanded in Quran:

وَاَوْفُوْا بِالْعَهْدِ
“And fulfill [every] commitment”                                

اِنَّ الْعَهْدَ كَانَ مَسْـُٔوْلًا                                                    
Indeed, the commitment is ever [that about which one will be] questioned”

  • Principle of the general amnesty
    In most cases, when the Holy Prophet SAWW won the war, He SAWW mostly announced the general amnesty to the defeaters. An example of the conquest of Makkah in 8 A.H. is here when the Holy Prophet SAWW announced the amnesty to the Quraish and forgave those who took refuge in the Kaaba and the house of Abu Sufyan. 

Contemporary Time Analysis:

The military strategies of the Beloved Holy Prophet (PBUH) are still an excellent example and guideline for those who have to formulate military principles. Even in contemporary times, if these military tactics are followed, then the necessary evil of war can be executed peacefully. This military strategy is not only a role model for Muslims but also for non-Muslims across the globe. The disastrous incidents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the war on terror in Afghanistan, the invasion and war by the USA in Iraq, the war in Syria, Russia-Ukraine war can be either avoided or executed less destructively if the military strategy of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) was used as a role model. The destruction and chaos across the world are because countries are formulating violent and brutal military tactics to contain and destroy other enemy states.

Testimony by Muslims and Non-Muslims:    

 “The survival of the world is associated with the seerah of beloved Holy prophet, he is the panacea to all problems of the world”

(Allama Iqbal)

 “Holy prophet (PBUH) is an illuminating candle and brightening magic for everyone in this world and the world hereafter”

(Dr. Hamid-u-Din)

 “He [MUHAMMAD] has made the necessary evil of war less brutal”

(Professor. Lara Ovikshia wigleri)

 “I am surprised at the prominent achievements of the son of desert [Muhammad]. These are acts which cannot be done by prophet Musa and Jesus”

(Napoleon Bonaparte)

“Muhammad (PBUH), despite having less knowledge about military education, has shown excellent capabilities and great skill as a commander in all his wars and military confrontations”

(V.C Badley)


So, it is concluded that history is witnessing that Holy Prophet (PBUH) has exhibited excellent military skills in all his wars. He always led the Muslims from the front and preached that martyrdom was better than turning back on the battlefield. He was careful and cognizant of the military preparedness of Muslims and made arrangements for imparting military training to Muslims during peacetime as well. Muslims were sent to other areas for getting training in the use of weapons. He has fought many wars with minimum human life losses. As in the past, the protection of the world and peace lay in the teachings of the Holy Prophet SAWW, even today it is possible only by following the teachings of Islam and the Holy Prophet. If United Nations makes a collective effort to implement the military strategies of Hazrat Muhammad (SAWW), then the world can be protected and become a peaceful hub to live with minimum loss.

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2-What is the Quranic argument on life Hereafter? What are its impacts on the individual and collective life of a human being?
3-Discuss the Holy Prophet’s (PBUH) role as a Model for Military Strategy.
4-Elaborate on the rights of daughters granted by Islam and how these are denied by Muslims in the contemporary world.
5-Defind Ijma (consensus) and explain its different kinds. Can legislation by a parliament of an Islamic state be regarded as a valid consensus?
6-Analyze the Charter of Madina as a social contract.
7-What are the motives of extremism in Pakistan? How can society get rid of extremism by following the teachings of Islam?
8-Write Notes on the following:
a. Human rights in the light of the Sermon of Farewell Pilgrimage.
b. Social Justice in an Islamic Society.

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