The following article is written by Kashifa Mehmood, a student of Sir Syed Kazim Ali. Moreover, the article is written on the same pattern, taught by Sir to his students, scoring the highest marks in compulsory subjects for years. Besides, the knowledge, case studies, quotes, and examples have been taught to him by Miss Irum Arif, the country’s top CSS and PMS Pakistan Affairs coach. For years, Miss Irum Arif, also Sir Kazim’s student, has been known for her teaching methodology and how she helps her students understand questions asked in the exam. Therefore, to help thousands of CSS and PMS aspirants who visit Cssprepforum and Howfiv for better preparation, we have uploaded this article so they can understand how to crack a topic or a question, how to write relevantly, what is coherence, and how to include and connect ideas, opinions, and suggestions to score the maximum.
The then Indian Muslims were practising un-Islamic principles under the regime of Mughal Emperor Akbar. The promulgation of Deen-e-Elahi was the root cause of all the social evils that prevailed in that society. However, Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi appeared on the horizon to revive Islam through religious, social, and to some extent, political reforms.
The religious conditions of the then Muslims
✓ Fabricated concepts of Ulema-e-Su
✓ Promulgation of Deen-e-Elahi
✓ Practicing un-Islamic principles
The reformations in Islam introduced by Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi
✓ Reviving Islam
✓Demolished un-Islamic practices
✓ Criticizing Ulema-i-Su
✓ Using the tool of letters
Influence of Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi on the Muslims of sub-continent
✓Revitalization of Shariah and Sunnah
✓Abolished all un-Islamic trends
✓Ban on inter-religion marriages
✓ Re-imposition of Jizya
✓ Preaching Wahdat-ul-Shahud
✓ Influence on Mughal Emperors and court Nobles
✓ Birth of two Nation Theory
Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi, reviver of the second millennium, has played an indispensable role in the history of Indian Muslims to save the annihilation of the religion Islam. He initiated his reformist movement to stop the amalgamation of other religions with Islam during Akbar’s era which was threatening the true teachings of the religion. For that purpose, he emphasized the true teachings of the Quran and Sunnah, struggled against the prevalent polytheism, revitalised Islamic laws, and prohibited inter-religion marriages. As a result, the Muslims strived to act upon the Islamic teachings by negating the innovative ideas prohibited in Islam. Thus, Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi played a vital role in rejuvenating Islam in the sub-continent and creating history for the Muslims of India. Allama Iqbal appreciated Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi by saying,
“He was the guardian of the Muslim faith in India whom God had given a timely warning.”
The Mughal emperor Akbar was a true Muslim. However, some unpleasant events led him to rebel against Islam. Ironically, the then worldly scholars- to attain the ruler’s patronage- fabricated misconceptions about Islam. Consequently, Akbar introduced a religion- Deen-i-Elahi by challenging the true Islamic essence. Inter-religious marriages, a ban on jizya, and saying of Allah-o-Akbar while greetings and prostration before him were some of his religion’s particulars. Subsequently, it impacted the Muslims to a great extent, and they started practising un-Islamic traditions. However, Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi-a reformer- came forward at the delicate time to counter the materialistic politics of unorthodox mystics and the emperor.
The reform movement of Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi
Considering all the evils and un-Islamic policies, Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi appeared on the horizon to inculcate Islamic trends and principles. All the misconception about Islam, which was propagated through Akbar’s Deen-e-Elahi- was abolished by Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi and, he strived hard to revitalize Islam in the sub-continent. Moreover, he noticed that Ulema-e-Su were the root cause of the then Muslim’s plight so he criticized them through his treasure of letters. Similarly, the introduction of Bid’at in Islam was strictly prohibited, and he, through his letters, condemned the renovation by referring to Quran and Hadith. As it is mentioned in Hadith,
“The best discourse is the discourse of Allah, and the best way is the way of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and the worst thing are the inventions and every innovation in the religion is misleading.”
Influence of his reform movements on the Muslims of sub-continent
Shaikh Ahmed Sirhindi through his preaching power rejuvenated Islam in the sub-continent. It was his great achievement that restored Shariah and Sunnah in society. Through his teachings, all the un-Islamic values were abolished and the new spirit and essence of Islam were produced. The ban on inter-religion marriages, re-imposition of Jizya, lifting the ban on cow slaughtering, and renovation of mosques were the outcomes of his reform movements. Similarly, Muslims that were under the unconscious influence of Hindu teachings negated all non-Islamic norms by considering the Wahdat-ul Shuhod concept given by Mujaddid Alif Thani. Conclusively, all the Muslims became true devotees of Islam, and dominance of Islamic teachings was clearly observed in their attitudes.
Similarly, the teachings of Shaikh Ahmed Sirhindi influenced the Mughal emperors and the court nobles- the starting point of social and religious rebels. Therefore, the Mughal court after Akbar became a true Islamic hub started promoting Quran and Sunnah. Moreover, as a result of Shaikh Ahmad’s preaching, all the Islamic rituals were followed on the occasion of the conquest of fortress Kangra. Similarly, the title ‘faith defender emperor’ was given to Jahangir for his outstanding services to Islam, all of that happened due to Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi’s influence. In addition, he, indirectly, gave birth to the two-nation theory by considering the Hindus and Muslims as separate entities. Accordingly, the Mughal court and the Muslims came under the flag of Islam under his inspiration.
The promulgation of Deen-e-Elahi by Akbar was, purely, due to political interest and worldly gains. Under the influence of Ulema-e-Su and his Hindu wives, he started many rituals prohibited in Islam. Assessing the delicacy of the situation, Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi came forward and re-established Shariah. It was his struggle that changed the miserable situation of the Muslims, and they, ultimately, became true Islamic devotees.
To sum up, a reformer was the need of the time when Akbar propagated un-Islamic principles. And Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi was destined to appear as a reformer, a Mujaddid, and an alim. He urged the then Muslims towards Islam and eradicated all the social, religious, and political evils that had plunged the nation into the ravine of darkness. Moreover, he strictly prohibited the religious amalgamation of Deen-e-Elahi. As a result of his teachings, the Muslims started practising Islam with full zeal and zest and abolished all the un-Islamic rituals.
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