Lucknow Pact 1916 is Considered the Culmination of Hindu-Muslim Unity? What Circumstances led to this Historic Path?

Lucknow Pact 1916 is Considered the Culmination of Hindu-Muslim Unity? What Circumstances led to this Historic Path?

PMS 2016 Solved Pakistan Affairs Past Papers | Lucknow Pact 1916 is Considered the Culmination of Hindu-Muslim Unity? What Circumstances led to this Historic Path?

The following question of PMS Pakistan Affairs 2016 is solved by Mezaab Mushtaq under the supervision of Miss Nirmal Hasni. She learnt how to attempt 20 marks question and essay writing from Sir Syed Kazim Ali, Pakistan’s best CSS and PMS English essay and precis teacher with the highest success rate of his students. This solved past paper question is attempted on the pattern taught by Sir to his students, scoring the highest marks in compulsory and optional subjects for years, and uploaded to help aspirants understand how to crack a topic or question, how to write relevantly, what coherence is, and how to include and connect ideas, opinions, and suggestions to score the maximum.

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2-Background of Lucknow pact

3-What circumstances led to the culmination of Hindu-Muslim unity?

  • International events
  • National events
  • The changes in Objectives of the league
  • Efforts to bring both parties together

4- What was the significance of the Lucknow pact 1916?

5- Conclusion

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Answer to the Question


The Lucknow Pact of 1916 was a significant milestone in the Indian independence movement. It brought together the Indian National Congress and the All India Muslim League with the aim of promoting unity between Hindus and Muslims in their fight for self-government. The pact addressed issues such as communal representation and political rights, highlighting the shared aspirations of both communities. Moreover, there are several circumstances that led to this historic event in India, such as international events: The Anglo-Russian war, Britain’s occupation of Egypt, the National event- partition of Bengal, the objective league: self-government, and the need for unity against the British. Over and above, the Lucknow pact had great significance, including the unity of Hindu-Muslims, reuniting early and assertive nationalists, strengthening the Indian movements, and the Declaration of 20 August, a self-government institution promised by Britishers. All in all, the Lucknow pact is considered a high watermark of Hindu-Muslim unity, and it was the first and last pact signed between Congress and the Muslim League.

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Background of Lucknow Pact 1916    

The All India Muslim League and the Indian National Congress, of which Mohammed Ali Jinnah was a member at the time, made a common decision to take advantage of the situation and pressure the British government into making reforms. For the first time ever, both parties appeared uninterested during a joint session. When Tilak-led extremists and Gokhale-led moderates decided to meet in Bombay, the idea of Hindu-Muslim Unity was born. The Muslim League joined them there, and together, they developed their constitutional demands through discussion. The leaders of both parties had congregated at that point, sharing identical viewpoints and making comparable arguments for their demands. A total of 19 elected members from both parties sent a message to the Viceroy for discussion of the constitutional revisions in October 1916, just a few months after the Bombay meeting. The proposals from the earlier meeting were examined and adopted at the subsequent meeting in Calcutta in November 1916. The Lucknow Pact, 1916, was ultimately ratified by the Muslim League and the Indian National Congress at their respective annual sessions held in Lucknow in December 1916.   

What circumstances led to the culmination of Hindu-Muslim unity?   

1- International Events

Events taking place outside India drew the league closer to the Congress. Some of these events are the following:

  • The British Occupation of Egypt
  • The Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907 divided Persia into two spheres of influence between England and Russia
  • The hostility of the British government towards the Sultan of Turkey during the Tripoli and Balkan wars in 1911, 1912 and 1913. They looked upon the Sultan as the Caliph of Islam and did not like that he should have been humbled by Italy and the Balkan Powers through the connivance of England. The participation of Turkey in the Great War on the side of Germany convinced the Indian Muslims that the British were not the real friends of Islam
2- National Events

With the annulment of the Partition of Bengal in 1911, the Muslims felt that they had been cheated. Further, in 1915, the Ali brothers, Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, were arrested for supporting Turkey’s entry into the war against the British. Muhammad Ali Jinnah, at the time, a staunch Congress leader and a nationalist, wanted the League to come closer to the Congress. He was instrumental in spreading nationalist ideas.

3- The changed objectives of the League

With the change in the political attitude of the members of the League, there grew a desire for unity with the Congress. At the annual session of the Muslim League held in Lucknow in 1913, the Congress ideal of self-government was adopted. This commonality of interests brought a positive aspect to the relationship between Congress and the League. The Indian National Congress welcomed this change.

4- Efforts to bring both parties together

It was generally felt among the middle-class Muslims the need to join hands with the Congress in their fight against the British government. Jinnah tried to bring the League and the Congress closer. With this aim, he even organized the League’s annual session in Bombay at the same time and at the same place as that of the Congress. Even the Congress leaders encouraged the League’s attempt to bridge the gap. Gandhi and Sarojini Naidu attended the League’s session in Bombay. Committees were appointed by both parties to prepare a draft for reforms that were to be demanded from the British government.

What was the significance of the Lucknow pact 1916?

  • The Lucknow Pact of 1916 led to Hindu–Muslim unity. While Congress accepted the scheme of separate electorates for the Muslims, the Muslim League accepted the principle of election and majority rule.
  • The signing of the Lucknow Pact also reunited the Early and Assertive Nationalists (both wings of the Congress were split in the 1907 session at Surat).
  • The unity between the Muslim League and the Congress strengthened the Indian National Movement. Till now, the government was repressing the national movement by following the policy of ‘divide and rule’.
  • The British government realized that during the war years of the First World War, it was necessary to pacify Indians to garner their support during the First World War. Thus, they announced the Declaration of 20 August, in which they promised to gradually develop self-government institutions in the country.


To conclude, the Lucknow pact played an indispensable role in shaping the trajectory of the Indian independence movement. It created harmony between the All-India Muslim League and Congress parties to fight against the Britishers.  Similarly, the leaders of both parties had congregated at that point, sharing identical viewpoints and making comparable arguments for their demands, such as a separate electorate self-government. Furthermore, the Lucknow pact had great significance, which highly impacted the Indian Hindus and Muslims. As a result, it brought remarkable events, including the reunion of Hindu-Muslim, the strengthening of the Indian movements, and unity between early and assertive nationalists. Therefore, owing to internal and external tensions, the Britishers finally promised to fulfil their demands.

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