CSS 2016 Solved Pakistan Affairs Past Papers | The Aligarh Movement was a Pure Educational Venture but it had Deep Impacts on Indian politics. Discuss.
The following question of CSS Pakistan Affairs 2016 is solved by Abdul Hanan under the supervision of Miss Nirmal Hasni. She learnt how to attempt 20 marks question and essay writing from Sir Syed Kazim Ali, Pakistan’s best CSS and PMS English essay and precis teacher with the highest success rate of his students. This solved past paper question is attempted on the pattern taught by Sir to his students, scoring the highest marks in compulsory and optional subjects for years, and uploaded to help aspirants understand how to crack a topic or question, how to write relevantly, what coherence is, and how to include and connect ideas, opinions, and suggestions to score the maximum.
2- Foundation and Objectives of the Aligarh Movement
3- Impact on Indian Politics
- ✓ Impact on Muslim’s Relations with British
- ✓ Political Empowerment of Muslims
- ✓ Rise of Muslim Identity and Consciousness
- ✓ Modernization of Muslim Thought
- ✓ Seeding Two-Nation Theory
- ✓ Political Mouth Piece of Indian Muslims
- ✓ Fore Runner for All India Muslim League
4- Critical Analysis
Answer to the Question
The Aligarh Movement, spearheaded by the great Muslim reformer, writer, and educator Sir Syed Ahmad Khan in the late 19th century, attempted to revive the spirit and glory among the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent. It was primarily initiated to promote modern education among Muslims and remove the misunderstanding and tension between them and the new British government. It also aimed to bridge the gap between traditional Islamic learning and Western knowledge. The Movement’s flagship institution, Aligarh Muslim University, played a pivotal role in educating a new generation of enlightened Muslim leaders. However, according to K. K. Aziz, a renowned Pakistani historian, Sir Syed Ahmad Khan’s political acumen made the Movement’s impact go beyond education and influence Indian politics significantly. It fostered political consciousness among Muslims, leading to their increased participation in the national political discourse. The Aligarh Movement also contributed to the emergence of the “Two-Nation Theory,” which eventually led to the demand for a separate Muslim state, culminating in the creation of Pakistan in 1947. Furthermore, the Movement was also used as a political mouthpiece for Indian Muslims and later became the forerunner of the All India Muslim League. To sum up, the Aligarh Movement’s educational venture had deep and lasting impacts on Indian politics, empowering Muslims and shaping the course of the country’s freedom struggle and eventual partition.
Foundation and Objectives of the Aligarh Movement
The Aligarh Movement was a significant socio-cultural and educational reform movement in British India during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It was founded by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan when he established the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College in Aligarh. The Movement aimed to uplift the marginalized Muslim population by advocating modern education, cultural revival, and socio-political awareness. With a strong emphasis on rationality, progressive thought, and interfaith harmony, the Aligarh Movement sought to bridge the gap between traditional Islamic values and the modern advancements of the time, laying the foundation for a brighter and more inclusive future for the Muslim community in India.
Impact on Indian Politics
1- Impact on Muslim’s Relations with British
During the War of Independence (1857), Muslims were unjustly blamed by the British government, leading to hostility towards the Muslim community. The government imposed severe restrictions, affecting their employment, property, and social standing. Particularly, the Government’s decision to replace Persian with English as the official language caused Muslims to resist it due to perceived conflict with Islamic values. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, recognizing the decline of Indian Muslims, worked to dispel mutual mistrust between Muslims and the British, seeking relief for the Muslim community. Despite challenges, the Aligarh Movement played a crucial role in empowering Indian Muslims and helping them adapt to the changing times.
2- Political Empowerment of Muslims
After the War of Independence in 1857, Muslims were subjected to the revengeful policies of the British. The Government began to doubt the allegiance of Muslims. “The condition had become so bad,” says Maulana Hali, “that there was no need to condemn a Muslim. His being a Muslim was enough crime.” To alleviate this tension, Sir Syed wrote “Rasala-e-Asbab-e-Baghawat-e-Hind” magazine. He clarified that it was not only Muslims who were responsible for the War of Independence but Hindus and other countries as well and that the government’s policies were poorly calculated. Sir Syed told Muslims in India, since at that time they had no modern or political education, to temporarily stay away from their political activities.
3- Rise of Muslim Identity and Consciousness
Further, the Aligarh Movement played a pivotal role in enhancing Muslim identity and community consciousness. Through its focus on education, the movement instilled pride in Muslim culture and heritage, fostering a sense of self-worth and belonging. It encouraged Muslims to participate actively in public life and politics by raising awareness of their rights and responsibilities. As a result, educated Muslim leaders emerged, advocating for the community’s interests during the struggle for independence. The Aligarh Movement’s contributions have had a lasting impact on the Muslim community, shaping their engagement in various spheres and promoting a distinct Muslim identity that coexists with modernity.
4- Modernization of Muslim Thought
Next to it, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan did not admire conservative Muslims because he knew that modern socialization could only cope with the social crises of Muslims. Through Tehzeeb-e-Ikhlaq, he advocated for a balanced approach that integrated modern knowledge with Islamic values. The magazine emphasized the importance of ethical conduct, women’s education, and social reforms, aligning with the broader objectives of The Aligarh Movement. Sir Syed encouraged Indian Muslims to move away from rigid traditional practices and embrace modern values and culture without compromising their religious identity. His efforts played a significant role in shaping the mindset of the Muslim intelligentsia and contributed to the modernization of Muslim thought and society in British India.
5- Seeding the Two-Nation Theory
Moreover, Sir Syed is supposed to be the pioneer of the two-nation theory. He was far from disputing, but the Urdu-Hindi controversy at Banaras in 1867 had a great effect on the life of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan. Before this event, he was a great advocate of Hindu-Muslim unity. However, this moment completely altered his view. During the days when the controversy was going on, in a meeting with the Commissioner of Banaras, Mr Shakespeare asked him, “Hitherto, you have always been keen about the welfare of Indians in general, and this is the first time you have spoken about Muslims alone.” In reply, Sir Syed said,
“After the Urdu-Hindi controversy, now I am convinced that these two communities will not join wholeheartedly in anything… He who lives will see.”
6- Political Mouth Piece of Indian Muslims
Likewise, the Aligarh Movement expanded its influence through various branches across the nation, and in 1886, the Muhammadan Educational Conference held its meetings at various places and carried the message of Aligarh to all parts of the country. Although it came into being to spread the intellectual message of Aligarh, it was also used as a political mouthpiece for Indian Muslims and later became the forerunner of the All-India Muslim League. Within a short period, the Aligarh Muslim University served as “a nursery of leaders” that later championed the cause of the Muslims and contributed much to their intellectual and political awakening in the sub-continent.
7- Fore Runner for All India Muslim League
Last but not least, the Aligarh Movement played a significant role as the forerunner for the All India Muslim League, heralding a new era of political consciousness among the Indian Muslim community. Sir Syed’s vision of a united and politically aware Muslim community laid the foundation for the League’s establishment in 1906. The Aligarh Movement empowered Muslims with modern knowledge and skills, enabling them to actively participate in the political sphere. The League became a pivotal platform for advocating political rights and interests within the context of Indian nationalism, shaping the trajectory of the independence movement and Muslim community demands.
The Aligarh Movement’s strengths lie in its efforts to modernize and uplift the Muslim community, promoting education and political awareness. The movement succeeded in establishing a prominent educational institution like Aligarh Muslim University, which continues to be a symbol of academic excellence.
To sum up, Sir Syed Ahmad Khan is considered the founding Father of Pakistan; therefore, the Aligarh Movement holds a significant place in Indian history for its contributions to education, political empowerment, and the formation of a distinct Muslim identity. Its legacy extends to the establishment of Aligarh Muslim University, which remains a prominent educational institution in India. The movement’s focus on education and political representation has left a lasting impact on Indian society and politics. Further, the Aligarh Movement played a pivotal role in shaping the trajectory of Indian nationalism and the demands of the Muslim community. To sum up, its influence on Indian society and education continues to be felt, and its emphasis on modern education and identity remains relevant for the future of Indo-Pak society and politics.
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