In Pakistan, the creation of police force is a colonial legacy. In which circumstances independent police force was established in the pre-independence era. What major changes have been occurred in the police department in Pakistan?

In-Pakistan-the-creation-of-police-force-is-a-colonial-legacy

CSS Solved Criminology Past Papers | In Pakistan, the creation of a police force is a colonial legacy. In which circumstances independent police force was established in the pre-independence era. What major changes have been occurred in the police department in Pakistan?

The following question is attempted by Sobia Kausar, the top scorer in the CSS Criminology paper. Moreover, the answer is written on the same pattern, taught by Sir to his students, scoring the highest marks in compulsory subjects for years. This solved past paper question is uploaded to help aspirants understand how to crack a topic or question, how to write relevantly, what coherence is, and how to include and connect ideas, opinions, and suggestions to score the maximum.

Outline

1- Introduction

2- Definition of Police

3- Establishment of an independent police force in the pre-independence era

  • ✓Role of British colonial rulers in the establishment of the police force 
  • ✓The Indian Police Act of 1861 and its impact on policing in Pakistan 
  • ✓The establishment of an independent police force in 1947

4- Major changes in the police department in Pakistan

  • ✓Introduction of community policing
  • ✓The formation of specialized police units
  • ✓The establishment of the National Police Bureau
  • ✓The creation of the Criminal Investigation Department (CID)
  • ✓Police reforms in the wake of the 18th Amendment 
  • ✓The role of technology in modernizing the police force

5- Challenges facing the police department in Pakistan

  • ✓Political interference 
  • ✓Corruption and lack of accountability 
  • ✓Insufficient resources and inadequate training

6- Conclusion

Introduction

In order to maintain the law and order situation in any country, there require some resistive forces which act as a barrier to control offenses in a society so that crimes do not malign the soft image of the state. The police force in Pakistan is a colonial legacy that was established during British rule. The system of policing in the pre-independence era was very different from the present system. After independence, the police force underwent significant changes in its structure, roles, responsibilities, and functions. The police force has brilliantly played its role in promoting the culture of merit in different governmental institutions by eliminating corruption and discouraging the formation of groups that would involve in heinous crimes later on. Thus, its role in controlling organized crimes is phenomenal.

Definition of Police

The police is a civil force and official organization that is responsible for protecting people and property, making people obey to law, finding out about and solving crimes, and catching people who have committed a crime.

In Pakistan, the Police force enacts according. 

  • The Police Act of 1861
  • The Police Order 2002

Functions of Police

The main functions of the police are

  • Enforcement of law
  • Maintenance of public order 
  • Protection of life and liberty 
  • Detection and prevention of crimes
  • To investigate crime

Establishment of an independent police force in the pre-independence era 

The circumstances which led to the formation of the Police force in the pre-independence era are many. However, some of them are given below.

  • Role of British colonial rulers in the establishment of the police force   

 After the Indian Rebellion, the British realized the need for a more organized and efficient law enforcement agency. As a result, Indian Police Act was passed in 1861, which established a hierarchical police force that was modelled on the British police system. The Act laid out the framework for the recruitment, organization, and management of the police force in India. The British colonial rulers also introduced modern policing methods, such as the use of fingerprints as a means of identification and the establishment of forensic laboratories. These innovations significantly improved the efficiency of the police force and helped reduce crime.

  • The Indian Police Act of 1861 and its impact on policing in Pakistan               

The Indian Police Act of 1861 was a law passed by the British colonial government in India that established a police force in the country. When Pakistan gained independence from British colonial rule in 1947, the Indian Police Act of 1861 continued to govern policing in Pakistan. The most significant impacts of the Indian Police Act of 1861 on Policing in Pakistan were

  • Centralization of Police Administration 
  • Police neutrality
  • Police professionalism
  • Police accountability and transparency 
  • The establishment of an independent police force in 1947

Soon after independence, Pakistan established its own police force named Pakistan Police Services (PSP), which replaced the British Indian Police. Initially, The Pakistan Police forces fall under the jurisdiction of provincial governments, later on, after the formation of the Federal Investigation Agency (FIA) to deal with crimes that had inter-provincial and international dimensions. The structure of the police service in Pakistan had undergone several reforms over the years. The most recent reform is National Action Plan (NAP) in 2015 which deals with terrorism and extremism in a country.

Major changes in the police department in Pakistan

With the passage of time, some major changes have taken place in the police department of Pakistan. The most crucial ones are as follows. 

  • Introduction of community policing

The notion behind the introduction of community policing was that the law enforcement agency can not work alone so it is wise to involve the public to reduce crimes. In Pakistan, it is introduced due to ongoing challenges such as terrorism, street crimes, and organized crimes. One of the key components of community policing is the establishment of police-community liaison committees (PCLCs) which are composed of local community members that work in collaboration with the police to control crimes.

  • The formation of specialized police units

In order to make the police department of Pakistan more efficient, the government has ordered the formation of specialized units within the police departments that deal with specific crimes such as terrorism, cybercrimes, and narcotics. 

  • The establishment of the National Police Bureau

The Bureau was established in 1977 as the Bureau of Police Research and Development (BPRD) until being renamed in 2004. It is headed by a Director General reporting to the Minister of the Interior. A central body responsible for coordinating and providing support to police forces across the country, and for developing and implementing national policies and standards for policing. 

  • The creation of the Criminal Investigation Department (CID)

In the wake of rising terrorism in Pakistan CID department was reconstructed as Counter Terrorism Department (CTD) under the umbrella of the National Action Plan 2015. The main purpose behind its formation is to look into serious confidential crimes, and corruption cases, it usually investigates, gathers information, and intelligence, and carries out necessary operations against involved masses.

  • Police reforms in the wake of the 18th Amendment

The police department has been introducing technology to improve its efficiency and effectiveness, including the use of CCTV cameras, computerized systems for record-keeping, and digital communication tools. This has helped to improve the quality of police services and enhance public trust in the police. 

  • The role of technology in modernizing the police force

The police department has been introducing technology to improve its efficiency and effectiveness, including the use of CCTV cameras, computerized systems for record-keeping, and digital communication tools. This has helped to improve the quality of police services and enhance public trust in the police.

Challenges facing the police department in Pakistan 

The police department in Pakistan is facing abreast of challenges both internally and externally, which question the credibility and efficiency of law enforcement agencies. Some of them are.

  • Political Interference

Frequent political interference in police departments undermines the performance of police in the country. The continuous transfer of police officers is due to political interference, and it makes a difference in police command and administration.

  • Corruption and lack of accountability

As per the report of transparency international 2013, the police department of Pakistan is the most corrupt. Moreover, there is a lack of accountability which undermine its performance.

  • Insufficient resources and inadequate training

There is a lack of resources in the police and inadequate training. Budget for investigation

Rs.295: Lahore, Rs.328: Islamabad, Rs.166: Sialkot according to PILDAT, Muhammad Ali Nekokara, police budget in Punjab 2016.

Conclusion 

In a nutshell, the establishment of the police department has a long-standing history ranging from the British era in the subcontinent to the present day. The police department has seen many revolutionary reforms which increase its efficiency many folds. The introduction of modern-day technology is a big step towards its progress. However, apart from some good prospects, some serious challenges are also there, which are leaving no room to malign its image in the public of the country. Thus, it is important to address these issues on a priority basis. 

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