Write a critical note on the role of law enforcement agencies in the control of terrorism in Pakistan. Suggest measures to minimize radicalization in Pakistan.


CSS Solved Criminology Past Papers | Write a critical note on the role of law enforcement agencies in the control of terrorism in Pakistan. Suggest measures to minimize radicalization in Pakistan.

The following question is attempted by Sobia Kausar, the top scorer in the CSS Criminology paper. Moreover, the answer is written on the same pattern, taught by Sir to his students, scoring the highest marks in compulsory subjects for years. This solved past paper question is uploaded to help aspirants understand how to crack a topic or question, how to write relevantly, what coherence is, and how to include and connect ideas, opinions, and suggestions to score the maximum.


Question Breakdown:

 In this question, the examiner has asked two things to explain. Firstly, elucidate the role of law enforcement agencies in the control of terrorism in Pakistan. Secondly, he is seeking some measures to lessen the radicalization in Pakistan. So in this context, examiners wants to check your knowledge related to law enforcement agencies’ role along with the ways to minimize radicalization. In order to answer this question, you must have to raise at least 8 to 10 arguments with valid and relevant evidence and vice versa. In this question, I will discuss both dimensions of this question. Moreover, if you want to fetch good score in criminology, then it is pertinent to apply relevant theories so that your question get maximum weightage and fetch you good marks. Furthermore, I have written a comprehensive and brief outline and solved the question to help you break such questions down, deal with them, and attempt them on paper. If you read it carefully, you will know how I scored the highest marks on the paper.


1- Introduction

2- Definition of terrorism in Pakistan

3- Historical context of terrorism in Pakistan

4- Role of law enforcement agencies in controlling terrorism in Pakistan

  • ✓Intelligence Gathering
  • ✓Counter-Terrorism Operations
  • ✓Border Control
  • ✓Awareness and Education

5- Challenges faced by law enforcement agencies in controlling terrorism in Pakistan

6- Measures to minimize radicalization in Pakistan

  • ✓Educational reforms
  • ✓Counter-narrative campaigns
  • ✓Strengthening the rule of law and ensuring justice
  • ✓Addressing socio-economic grievances

7- Conclusion

Answer to the Question


For the past few decades, terrorism in Pakistan has been a hot topic for discussion both on national and international forums. Terrorism has maligned the soft image of Pakistan which resulted in many sanctions on Pakistan. To curb terrorism, several law enforcement agencies came into action and performed their best to control terrorism. Despite some lacunas, the overall performance of law enforcement agencies is quite remarkable and resulted in a decrease in terrorism incidents. Apart from this, Radicalization is also a major concern in a country. However, through a pragmatic approach, it can be tackled in the best possible manner. 

Definition of terrorism in Pakistan

The National Counter Terrorism Authority (NCTA) has defined terrorism as being practiced by political organizations with both rightist and leftist objectives, by nationalistic and religious groups, by revolutionaries, and even by state institutions such as armies, intelligence services, and police.

It is erroneous to equate terrorism only with political goals because all not terrorist actions are aimed at political change.

Source Google

Historical Context of Terrorism in Pakistan

The Soviet-Afghan war, which began in 1979, provided a breeding ground for terrorism in the region. A fundamental change was witnessed that altered the very character of existing Pakistani society. The withdrawal of the Soviets revealed a Pakistani society that had been forced into one of violence and weaponization, plaguing Pakistan with so-called ‘Kalashnikov culture and Talibanisation’.

Since the 9/11 incident, Pakistan has been intricately linked with the many facets of the war on terrorism. Some argue that Pakistan is a breeding ground for terrorist outfits, but all of this havoc has certainly resulted in the significant loss of innocent lives as well as the loss of economic revenue. These fragile conditions provide a fertile ground for terrorism in Pakistan.

Role of Law enforcement agencies in controlling Terrorism in Pakistan

The role of law enforcement agencies in controlling terrorism in Pakistan has been played is proven very effective in maintaining an environment of peace. Law enforcement agencies have followed certain measures to make it happen. 

  • Intelligence Gathering

Terrorists who are operating in a country are successfully traced by law enforcement agencies through intelligence gathering. They usually monitor their social media campaigns, scrutinize illegal transactions, and by collaborating with other international intelligence agencies. 

For example: In 2019, law enforcement agencies Taliban leader Mullah Mansoor collaborating with US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

  • Counter-Terrorism Operations

To restrain terrorists, law enforcement agencies frequently conduct counter-terrorism operations such as intelligence operations, conducting raids, arresting suspects, and seizing illegal weapons. For instance, in 2016 intelligence agencies conducted a raid in Karachi, arrested 90 suspects, and seized all weapons.

  • Border control

To filter people from terrorists, Law enforcement agencies strictly control border infiltration.

For example: In 2020, Pakistan’s Border Security Force (BSF) foiled an attempted infiltration by terrorists from across the border with India, killing two of the attackers.

  • Awareness and Education

Apart from other measures raising awareness and educating mass is the most crucial initiative to let people know about the harms of terrorist activities so that people do not incline towards this malicious act. Law enforcement agencies have successfully played their role in curbing terrorist activities in Pakistan. 

For example, Pakistan’s Federal Investigation Agency (FIA) launched a nationwide awareness campaign in 2021, highlighting the dangers of cyberterrorism and how to prevent it.

Challenges faced by law enforcement agencies in controlling terrorism in Pakistan

There are abreast of challenges that proved as a hurdle in the way of Law enforcement agencies’ effective policies for controlling terrorism in Pakistan. Some of them are.

  • Political interference
  • Lack of resources
  • Ineffective policies
  • Corruption
  • Lack of coordination

Measures to minimize radicalization in Pakistan

Radicalization is the action or process of causing someone to adopt radical positions on political or social issues. It serves as a sociological trap that gives individuals no other place to go to satisfy their material and spiritual needs. 

 (Action Radicalization pyramid)

Following are the measures to minimize radicalization in Pakistan.

  • Educational reforms

Education is a tool that always addresses all the issues of major concern. By educating the masses in a country, a state can brilliantly prevent radicalization. Pakistan needs to focus on improving the quality of education, ensuring access to education for all, and promoting critical thinking skills. The curriculum should be updated to include teachings on tolerance, respect for diversity, and the importance of peaceful coexistence.   

  • Counter-narrative campaigns        

This initiative can be proved most effective if it is used strategically. This tool should be used to present opposite ideologies to challenge radicals and promote moderate voices. For this purpose, it is pertinent to use social media platforms positively. 

  • Strengthening the rule of law and ensuring justice

A weak justice system can create an environment that is conducive to radicalization. Pakistan needs to strengthen its justice system by ensuring that the rule of law is upheld and that justice is served fairly and transparently. This can help to build trust in the state and reduce grievances that can lead to radicalization.

  • Addressing socio-economic grievances

Economic and social grievances can be a driver of radicalization. Pakistan needs to address issues such as poverty, inequality, and unemployment. The government should provide opportunities for economic empowerment, such as job creation, entrepreneurship, and access to credit. This can help to reduce the appeal of extremist ideologies.


To cut long story short, there is no iota of doubt in it that terrorist organizations provide too much harm to the country of Pakistan. With the action of law enforcement agencies, terrorist activities have been reduced tremendously in Pakistan. The overall performance of these agencies is quite satisfactory however, there are some challenges in their way that hinder their productivity. Moreover, through educational campaigns, counter actions, and addressing socio-economic conditions of the people radicalization can be reduced brilliantly.  

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