Describe the scope of Criminology as the science dealing with the study of criminal law, forensics, and criminal investigation

Describe the scope of Criminology as the science dealing with the study of criminal law, forensics, and criminal investigation

CSS Solved Criminology Past Papers | Describe the scope of Criminology as the science dealing with the study of criminal law, forensics, and criminal investigation

The following question is attempted by Sobia Kausar, the top scorer in the CSS Criminology paper. Moreover, the answer is written on the same pattern, taught by Sir to his students, scoring the highest marks in compulsory subjects for years. This solved past paper question is uploaded to help aspirants understand how to crack a topic or question, how to write relevantly, what coherence is, and how to include and connect ideas, opinions, and suggestions to score the maximum.

Question Breakdown

 In this question, the examiner has asked the scope of criminology in the context of criminal law, forensics, and criminal investigation to explain. Firstly, elucidate the significance of criminology as a discipline to pursue. Secondly, relate the scope of criminology as science dealing with above mentioned branches. So in this context, examiners want to check your knowledge related to criminology along with the blend of other branches of criminology. In order to answer this question, you must have to raise solid arguments with valid and relevant evidence and vice versa. In this question, I will discuss both sides of the question. Moreover, if you want to fetch a good score in criminology, then it is pertinent to apply relevant theories so that your question gets maximum weightage and fetches you good marks. Furthermore, I have written a comprehensive and brief outline and solved the question to help you break such questions down, deal with them, and attempt them on paper. If you read it carefully, you will know how I scored the highest marks on the paper.

Outline

1- Introduction

2- What is criminology?

3- Importance of criminology

4- Scope of criminology as the science dealing with the study of 

  • Criminal Law
  • Forensics
  • Criminal Investigation 

5- The real situation of criminology in Pakistan

6- Case study about the real picture of criminology in Pakistan

7- Conclusion

Introduction

Criminology is a discipline that emerges in the twentieth century. The importance of criminology has been increasing since its inception. The scope of criminology encircles the study of law and its implementation. To rectify society and make it a peaceful place to live in, various other branches of science, such as forensics, criminal investigation, and criminal law, have become an integral part of criminology. By doing this, the scope of criminology has been widened. Forensic science has helped in the accomplishment of investigation goals, and various criminal laws have been formulated according to contemporary affairs. In conclusion, the study of criminology encompasses a wide range of topics related to criminal law, forensics, and criminal investigation. 

What is Criminology?

According to Edwin Sutherland
“Criminology is the book of knowledge regarding crime as a social phenomenon. It includes within its scope the process of making laws, breaking laws, and reacting toward a breaking of the law”.

Source Google

Importance of criminology

Criminology plays a significant role in establishing a peaceful society. The significance of criminology is as follows.
Criminology provides an effective reformation treatment by affording adequate opportunities by treatment method. Its focuses on juvenile delinquency and measures to address it. Moreover, it plays a major role in policy formation to control crimes. Planning, evaluation, and operation of the criminal justice system are also roles of criminology. 

Scope of criminology as the science dealing with the study of 

  • Criminal Law

Criminology is a multidisciplinary field that combines various areas of study to understand the nature, causes, and prevention of crime. While criminal law is an important component of criminology, the scope of criminology goes beyond the study of legal principles and statutes.

Criminology encompasses a wide range of disciplines, including sociology, psychology, anthropology, biology, and economics. It examines criminal behavior from multiple perspectives, including the social, psychological, and biological factors that contribute to criminal behavior, as well as the economic and political factors that shape criminal justice policies. The study of criminology involves researching and analyzing crime trends, studying the criminal justice system, understanding the causes of criminal behavior, and developing effective strategies for preventing and reducing crime. Criminologists may also work in areas such as victimology, restorative justice, and corrections.

Overall, the scope of criminology is vast, and it provides a comprehensive understanding of the complex nature of crime and the criminal justice system. While the study of criminal law is an important part of criminology, it is just one aspect of this broad field.

  • Forensic Science

Criminology and forensics are related fields, they have distinct focuses and methodologies. Forensic science is an application of science to those criminal and civil laws enforced by police agencies in the Criminal Justice System. It involves the use of multiple disciplines such as physics, biology, chemistry, computer science, engineering, etc for evidence analysis. 

Physics: to understand the pattern of blood spatter
Biology: to establish the source of the unidentified suspect
Chemistry: to determine the composition of drugs 

  1. Role of Forensic Science in Criminal Investigation

Forensic science is that piece without which the puzzle of Criminal Investigation is incomplete without its application. Criminals can never be convicted unless an eyewitness is present. Detectives and law enforcement agencies collect evidence while forensic science analysis to establish facts admissible in a court of law. Without it, murderers, thieves, rapists, and drug traffickers would be roaming scot-free. 

  1. Importance of Forensic Science in Law:

Forensic labs are extensively used worldwide to convict and exonerate defendants. Forensic labs have mushroomed all over the world. Special acts have been enacted in the US, Canada, and Australia to improve forensic science. 

 Overall, both fields criminology and forensics are important in understanding and addressing crime and criminal behavior.

  • Criminal Investigation

Criminology as a science is concerned with the study of criminal behavior, its causes, and its consequences. As such, it can be applied to the field of criminal investigation, which involves the systematic process of gathering and analyzing evidence to solve crimes.

The scope of criminology in criminal investigation is wide-ranging and includes the following:

  1. Understanding criminal behavior: Criminology helps in understanding the motives, patterns, and modus operandi of criminals. This knowledge can help investigators to identify suspects and build a case against them.
  1. Profiling suspects: Criminology can aid in developing profiles of suspects based on their behavior, personality traits, and psychological characteristics. This can help investigators narrow down their search for suspects and focus their investigations on the most likely perpetrators.
  1. Crime scene analysis: Criminology provides the tools and techniques for analyzing crime scenes to gather and interpret physical evidence. This includes understanding the significance of different types of evidence, such as fingerprints, DNA, and ballistics, and how to collect and preserve them properly.
  1. Interrogation and interview techniques: Criminology can provide insights into the psychological and social factors that influence criminal behavior, which can be useful in developing effective interrogation and interview techniques.
  1. Criminal justice policies: Criminology can inform the development of criminal justice policies that are effective in preventing crime and reducing recidivism. This can include interventions such as rehabilitation programs, community policing, and restorative justice.

Overall, the scope of criminology in criminal investigation is broad and encompasses a range of disciplines and techniques. Its application in a criminal investigation can aid in the identification, apprehension, and prosecution of criminals, as well as the development of policies and interventions aimed at reducing crime and promoting public safety.

The real situation of criminology in Pakistan

The situation of criminology in Pakistan is quite daunting. There is only one HEC-recognized journal of criminology, which is not enough source of information for the public or even criminologists. Moreover, when it comes to the post-graduation in criminology Masters in criminology are offered by only 10 universities. While no Ph.D. degree is offered in criminology. 

Case study about the real picture of criminology in Pakistan

Shanial Ayaz Mazhar in Dawn News reported, “The University of Sindh produced several criminologists but they are still jobless. No job is announced for them”.

Conclusion

In conclusion, criminology is a broad field that encompasses the study of criminal law, forensics, and criminal investigation. It is an important science because it helps to inform criminal justice policy and practice. By understanding the causes of crime and how to prevent it, criminologists can make valuable contributions to society.

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