Critically examine the Congress Ministries of 1937. How far is it correct to suggest that it paved the way for a separate Muslim homeland in India?

Critically examine the Congress Ministries of 1937. How far is it correct to suggest that it paved the way for a separate Muslim homeland in India

Solved by Miss Arooj Nadeem

CSS Solved Pakistan Affairs Past Paper 2019 | Critically examine the Congress Ministries of 1937. How far is it correct to suggest that it paved the way for a separate Muslim homeland in India?

Question’s Breakdown:

In this question, the examiner asks you to critically evaluate the Congress Ministries of 1937 and how they influence the Muslims to lay the foundation of a separate Muslim homeland, Pakistan. So, you are required to take a stance and prove it till the last of your sentence. Moreover, you need to highlight the impacts of Congress Ministries on Indian Muslims, because these impacts actually made Muslims raise a demand for a separate homeland. You don’t need to explain the history and details of the elections of 1937 in this question.

The answer is solved on the given pattern, which Sir Syed Kazim Ali teaches to his students, who consistently score the maximum because of their attempting the questions. The content is based on historical facts taught by Sir Rameez Ch.


1- Introduction 

After winning the elections in the majority, the formation of the Congress Ministries of 1937 was considered the first and foremost event that triggered the Muslims to demand a separate homeland, Pakistan. The policies adopted by Congress towards the Muslims made them realise that only a separate and independent Muslim state can ensure their fundamental rights.

2- A critical evaluation of the Congress Ministries of 1937

  • Elections of 1937 and its results 
  • Formation of Congress Ministries & their actions

3- Policies of Congress Ministries 

  • Bande Matram 
  • Warda Scheme 
  • Hoisting of Three-Colored Flag
  • Widia Mander Scheme
  • Urdu-Hindi controversy 
  • Hindu-Muslim Riot
  • Muslim Mass Contact Campaign

4- Impact of the Congress Rule on the Muslims and Their Reaction

  • Making Muslims believe in their separate identity 
  • Gathering Muslims across India under the banner of Islam 
  • Forcing Muslims to demand a separate peace of land, Pakistan

4- Critical analysis 
5- Conclusion 

Answer to the Question


The Congress ministries, the outcome of the elections held in 1937, proved to be the last nail in the coffin of United India under the British Raj. It convinced Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, together with Muslim League leaders and other Muslims of the subcontinent, to lay the foundation of a separate homeland. After the Election of 1937, the Indian Congress came into power. The unexpected results intoxicated the Congress leaders with a mistaken sense of power. Furthermore, the Congress ministries made the Muslims’ lives miserable in all the eight provinces, having been under its rule. The tyranny and oppression of Congress’s rule became an eye-opener for the Indian Muslims. They realized that the only option left for them was to demand a separate Muslim state. Thus, after three months, the Muslim league’s demand for a separate homeland was formally put forward by Indian Muslims rigorously. This answer comprehensively discusses the Congress Ministries and how they make Muslims lay the foundation of a separate Muslim land. 

As mandated by the Government of India Act 1935, provincial elections were held in 1937 between the Indian National Congress and the All India Muslim League. The results of the elections were shocking for the Indian Muslims as they could not get mentionable support from the voters. Contrarily, the Congress achieved a big victory and managed to get a clear majority in five provinces, i.e. Madras, Bihar, Orissa, United Provinces, and Central Provinces. However, the coalition government was formed in Bombay, Bengal, and N.W.F.P. After winning the elections, Congress adopted a rigid attitude, and they started behaving in a dictatorial manner. The Congress leaders tried to seek assurance from the Governors not to intervene in the working of the ministries. They also refused to form a coalition government with the Muslim League by putting terms and conditions almost impossible to meet for the Muslim League. No political party with an iota of self-respect could accept these terms.  Therefore, the Muslim League rejected these terms and conditions. Thus, a pure Congress ministry was formed in the United Provinces. 

After coming to power, Congress ministries came out to impose Hindu nationalism on the Muslims. They declared Bande Matram as the national anthem and the three-coloured flag as the national flag. To humiliate the Muslims, Congress insisted on commencing the day’s beginning by the recitation of the song Bande Matram and ordered the hoisting of the three-coloured flag to prove that there were only two powers in India- the British and the Congress. In addition to that, Warda Scheme, a primary education policy, and Vidya Mandir Scheme, a new education system, were introduced. The main objective was to brainwash the Muslim youth by infusing in them the ideology and theory of one nation. The supremacy of the Hindu religion and culture was the primary intention of these schemes. Besides, the Urdu-Hindi controversy was another issue for a long time, and Congress found an opportunity to implement its heinous policy. Eventually, the Hindi language was given topmost importance in their policies and declared a national language, while Deva Nagri stated it as the official script. Moreover, the Hindus were free to assault innocent Muslims in United India. The Muslim houses and properties were set on fire, and their women and children were abducted. Congress started a Muslim mass contact campaign. The main objective of this campaign was to damage the popularity of the Muslim League amongst the Muslims. Consequently, the Congress proved to be a pure Hindu party and worked during its reign to better the Hindus. Slowly but relentlessly, Congress was forcing the Muslims of India into separation. With the resignation of the Congress Ministries, the Muslims of India were relieved of the subjugation of the Congress rule. Hence, it is not wrong to say that twenty-seven months of the Congress rule were like a nightmare for the Muslims of the subcontinent. 

“The Muslims can expect neither justice nor fair play under Congress government.”

(Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah) 

Congress rule in eight provinces was, no doubt, a period of immense suffering for the Muslims. Still, it was a blessing in disguise as it brought unprecedented unity among the Muslims. It convinced them that the Hindus and the Muslims were two separate identities with different religions, cultures, and traditions. So, it would not be possible for both communities to live together under the same banner. As aptly said by Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah that “Hindus and Muslims through living in the same town and village have never been blended into one nation. They were always two separate entities.” Hence, this reality strengthened the belief of the Muslims in the Two-Nation Theory that made the basis for the demand for a separate Muslim homeland, Pakistan. They realised that only a separate land could provide them safety and freedom. At last, “a separate country for the Muslims” became a slogan of every then Muslim in United India. 

Critical Analysis

It is undeniable that the Elections of 1937 became an eye-opener for the Muslims of United India. Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was fully aware of Congress’s evil intentions and struggled hard to make Muslims realise that they need a separate homeland. The Elections of 1937 proved that the Muslims of the subcontinent did not want a separate homeland for themselves at that time. Soon after Congress came into power and adopted a rigid attitude towards the Muslims, they realised that no constitutional authority could protect their freedom in United India. So, the only option left for them was to demand a separate Muslim state.

“The 2 ½ years of Congress rule are a soaring experience for Muslims. The years of Congress rule have given us a very bitter lesson and have created fear of the Hindus’ domination. The Muslims are a nation by every definition of the word Nation. It is absolutely wrong to consider the Muslims as a minority” 

(Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah)


The struggle for freedom in the subcontinent had not confined to a specific occasion, but it was an ultimate outcome of a series of events. However, the Congress Ministries and their policies toward the Muslims provoked the Indian Muslims to put forward the demand for a separate state. Muslims had a staunched belief in the Two-Nation Theory that became the basis of the creation of Pakistan. With the end of the Congress rule in 1939, the Muslims celebrated the Day of Deliverance on December 22, 1940. Thus, they formally put forward the demand for a separate Muslim state, Pakistan. 

ان تازہ خداؤں میں بڑا سب سے وطن ہے
جو پیرہین ہے اس کا وہ مذہب کا کفن ہے 

(شاعر ملت, علامہ محمد اقبال)

About Miss Arooj Nadeem:

Miss Arooj Nadeem is a famous pharmacist by profession. She has been engaged in research in the field of pharmacy for years. To let people of the world know about medicines and health, she has started learning writing by joining Sir Syed Kazim Ali. She is also a CSS & PMS aspirant. After learning creative writing, she has begun solving past paper questions on the guidelines given by Sir Syed Kazim Ali, Miss Zaineb Azam, and Sir Rameez Ch. to help thousands of CSS, and PMS aspirants. She is trying to solve all the CSS, and PMS past papers with the help of Sir Kazim’s students, who qualified for the exams or scored the highest marks.

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