CSS Solved Political Science Past Papers | Ibn I Khaldun while acknowledging the external factors, emphasizes more on the internal systemic factors as decisive for the decline of states. Elaborate. CSS 2021
InIn this question, the examiner demands to explain the internal factors in the fall of state linking it to the theory of Ibn-e-Khaldun. Hence, one must reconsider his cyclic theory of the rising and decline of civilizations and must only throw light upon the intrinsic factors within the nation which result in the collapse of a state.
The answer is solved on the given pattern, which Sir Syed Kazim Ali teaches to his students, who consistently score above 80% because of their attempting the questions. Read the answer carefully and notice all the steps that are taken to attempt the question.
History, according to Ibn Khaldun, is a cyclical process in which sovereign nations originate, get stronger, lose strength, and finally fall under the control of other sovereign entities. Administrative, economic, military, and spiritual degradation accompanies the fall. As a result, the country fails to safeguard its state, forcing it to submit, and the state’s sovereignty gradually erodes.
Internal factors causing fall of state are:
- Decelerating Asabiyya
- Rising stagnation
- Debilitating army
- Exacerbating Urbanization
- Weakening Economy
Ibn Khaldun was a great scholar and thinker who is credited with establishing modern history, sociology, and economics. According to Ibn Khaldun, history is a cyclical process in which sovereign states emerge, get stronger, lose their strength, and are eventually subjugated by other sovereign forces. To be more specific, every society is uncivilized at first and seeks to gain authority over its own region. The stronger asabiyya has more authority than the asabiyyat of other communities. Because individuals from the same asabiyya prefer to defend one other at all costs, and because of their untamed natures, they are solid and competent combatants, Asabiyya is extremely powerful. If Asabiyya weakens, external elements tend to enter into internal matters of the nation with intentions to create internal disorder. It results in a weakening economy, poor military, stagnant leaders, and urbanization. Ultimately it leads to the decline of the state.
Asabiyya and primitive societies go hand in hand in triggering the success of battling and preventing communities from accepting the drawbacks of a luxurious existence. If one of them slows down, the other responds in kind. These characteristics, which do not deteriorate, are sufficient to infiltrate societies with fewer asabiyyat and civilized groups that are weary of fighting and have lost their primal natures. However, less civilized cultures that overcome others have a tendency to mimic more civilized societies over time. As a result, native groups lose their natural habitats, become used to luxury, and are eventually displaced by less civilized civilizations with greater asabiyyat.
Due to inept leaders, the state begins to deteriorate from within. The power of sovereign powers begins to dwindle during this period, according to Ibn Khaldun, due to the incapability of leaders. This stage is also known as contentment and tranquillity. In general, leaders are pleased with the work of their predecessors and believe that they should follow in their footsteps. Staying in peace is one of the essential goals. Leaders draw on their forefathers’ traditions and attempt to replicate their movements. They basically don’t do anything new and just want to keep their power. Due to their young ages, inexperience, weak morals, affluence, and other factors, several kings throughout and after this time are typically incapable of managing the realm. Leaders are unconcerned about government management, and subordinates or other strong statesmen govern the state. It is pretty difficult to take authority away from statesmen once they have taken control of them.
Furthermore, Ibn Khaldun claims that during this time, a state forgets its primitive nature. When the state enjoys luxury, martial power deteriorates. For example, if a person lives in luxury, he will not walk thousands of kilometres with his weapons to participate in wars or jihad/holy wars. This is because when the government acquires wealth, people abandon their primitive lifestyles and become accustomed to luxury. A community deserves the state by working hard, and once they achieve their goals, they lose their motivation to work harder because their goals have been met. In addition, the community tends to follow in the footsteps of its leaders. It indicates that if leaders spend excessively, the community will follow them, and as a result of their extravagant lifestyle, leaders will have to collect more taxes, and social life will begin to collapse.
According to Ibn Khaldun, the transition from a rural to an urban lifestyle is accompanied by a decrease in fighting desire. The state’s character and worldview changed when the sultans refused to go to wars and stayed in their palaces, in the past. Moreover, Governors and the upper crust relished the delights of banquets and wealth. Governors loved poetry at parties, and certain foreign ambassadors were occasionally invited. Their yearning for additional luxury became stronger, and they became greedy. It resulted in societal turmoil and collapse.
Because of the state’s deteriorating economic direction and the leaders’ luxurious lifestyle, sane individuals do not support them. Leaders would entrust low-class followers with important state affairs and disperse the power of his forefathers. Waste and squandering is the term for this stage. Leaders waste their ancestors’ wealth and live in luxury. As the economy degrades, the government imposes more taxes on citizens. Furthermore, economic crises do not lead to the formation of a large army. When other states invade, the leader must spend a large sum of money on the army. They lose conflicts due to the state of the army and a lack of military might.
New leaders have a sense of social unity at first, but after a while, they seek for total power. They begin to rule subjects through his assistants later on. Asabiyya begins to wane in society after a while. The pursuit of luxury begins to have an ethical impact. Increasing spending leads to increased taxes, which reduces output and results in fewer revenues. Finally, more active and uncivilized Clans or internal powers destroy civilizations and nations.
According to Ibn Khaldun, the fall is accompanied by administrative, economic, military, and spiritual deterioration. The deterioration is a difficult position to understand. Leaders require sword power rather than pen power as asabiyya deteriorates. It means that they require the military’s power urgently, just as they did when the state was founded. Leaders use the money to hire professional soldiers. The military becomes weaker as a result of these soldiers’ refusal to choose death over money. Besides, because leaders spend so much money on their personal desires, the economy suffers, and the government raises taxes on citizens. Furthermore, economic crises do not lead to the formation of a large army. When other states invade, the leader must spend a large sum of money on the army. Due to the weakening situation of the army and lack of martial power, they lose wars, ending up losing a state.
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