What Are the Main Factors of National Disintegration in Pakistan?

What Are the Main Factors of National Disintegration in Pakistan

The following article, “What Are the Main Factors of National Disintegration in Pakistan?” is written by Kalsoom Begum, a student of Sir Syed Kazim Ali. Moreover, the article is written on the same pattern, taught by Sir to his students, scoring the highest marks in compulsory subjects for years. Sir Kazim has uploaded his students’ solved past paper questions so other thousands of aspirants can understand how to crack a topic or question, how to write relevantly, what coherence is, and how to include and connect ideas, opinions, and suggestions to score the maximum.

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1- Introduction

2- Understanding the term national integration

3- What are the main factors contributing to national disintegration in Pakistan?

  • ✓Political polarization
  • ✓Sectarian intolerance and target killing
  • ✓Hostile neighbors fueling false propaganda and terrorism
  • ✓The feudal culture and unequal distribution of resources
  • ✓Lack of good governance
  • ✓The Pashtun conflict over provinces

4- What can be done to ensure national disintegration in Pakistan?

  • Acceptance of different ethnicities through awareness programs in schools
  • Formation of new provinces to resolve disputes

5- Critical analysis
6- Conclusion

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Answer to the Question


Unity is essential for nations to make progress in the world. Several countries have achieved remarkable success by maintaining national integration in their diverse population. Whereas in Pakistan, national integration has been absent since the country’s inception. The country is facing national disintegration among its citizens due to differences in opinion regarding ethno-religious matters and fueling propaganda from hostile neighbors. Likewise, the main factors behind the national disintegration are political polarization, sectarian intolerance, rival countries fueling false propaganda and terrorism, the feudal culture leading to unequal distribution of resources, lack of good governance, and the Pashtun conflict over the province. Therefore, to reduce national disintegration, the government should take initiatives. For instance, good governance must be ensured, and new provinces should be created to eliminate disputes. Further, quality education must be provided to promote acceptance of other people’s opinions  and reduce hatred among citizens. Thus, national integration can be ensured by taking the right measures; consequently, it would foster a soft image of the country at the international level.

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Definition of national integration

National integration refers to the harmony among diverse heterogeneities and populace. It is a symbol of unity that binds different ethnicities and communities together into one single entity. Indeed, oneness is the key aspect of the national integration of a country.

The main factors of national disintegration in Pakistan

Political polarization leads to disintegration.

National integration is affected by political polarization in the country. Due to political instability, people have become intolerant towards different political parties, and unrest has been observed recently. It has caused upheaval in the country and damaging the peace and harmony in society. For instance, a recent example is the 2022 floods in Pakistan, in which the divisive politicians could not find enough time to pay attention to and keep a check on factors that worsened the impacts of flooding. However, they were busy in managing their interests. This depicts the lack of consensus and integration among the political parties.

Sectarian violence, intolerance, and terrorism in the country cause disharmony.

Sectarian violence is the other main factor of national disintegration in Pakistan. A zero-tolerance level has been observed in the country. The rage against different beliefs and opinions has caused many killings in Pakistan, presenting it globally as an intolerant state. Unfortunately, the worst recent case is the lynching of a Sri Lankan factory manager accused of blasphemy in Punjab’s Sialkot district. A huge number of people were present at the crime scene, yet no one interfered or tried to save his life. It is alarming that people can take the law into their own hands without waiting for the authority figures to decide or intervene. Ostensibly, national integration is hampered due to such incidents, which disrupt the country’s image, giving a chance to the hostile neighbors to subjugate Pakistan and make it a symbol of terrorism.

Propaganda by rival countries disrupts national integration in Pakistan.

Propaganda fueled by rival countries is another main culprit in disrupting the national integration in Pakistan. This can be analyzed by studying the case of Kulbushan Jadhav, alias Hussain Mubarak Patel, who was an Indian spy apprehended on March 3, 2016, during a counter-intelligence operation from Mashkel, Balochistan province. Yadhav was running a network of terror from Iran to sponsor terrorism in Pakistan and was in collusion with terrorist outfits such as BLA, BRA, MQM (militant wing), TTP, and Daish (ISIl). Many of these groups have conducted several terrorist-related assaults in Pakistan. Yadhav remains a living proof of Indian hostility and state-sponsored terrorism against Pakistan. Ironically, this could only come to light after he was caught. Otherwise, no one would have known about India’s involvement.

Unequal distribution of resources and elite culture contributes to national disintegration.

Unequal distribution and elite culture are also the main hitches in the national integration of Pakistan. Indeed, the concentrations of power in the hands of a few influential families and political elites have contributed to the perpetuation of elite culture in Pakistan,  leading to unequal distribution of resources in the country. Furthermore, this results in a system where certain groups have privileged access to power, wealth, and influential positions while others are marginalized. As a result, the harmony disrupts society and becomes the reason for national disintegration in the country.

Lack of good governance leads to disharmony in the country.

Lack of good governance fails to maintain the unity and harmony among the nation. Pakistan is a diverse country, but its governance fails to deliver on and address the concerns of different ethnic and regional groups. The downfall of East Pakistan is the unfortunate depiction of the governance in Pakistan. Similarly, unequal distribution and injustice led to the divide in Pakistan, which was a major loss to the country. Therefore, it hampers the national integration in Pakistan.

The Pashtun conflict also causes disintegration in Pakistan.

Last but not least, the Pashtun conflict, is a longstanding issue in Pakistan. The grievances are present in the northwestern regions of Pakistan, including Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA). They are sick of the lack of development and insurgencies from hostile neighbors. Consequently, this deprivation and fewer opportunities have contributed to a sense of deprivation and frustration among the Pashtuns, which has led to grievances and calls for greater rights and representation. Thus, they are unable to contribute to Pakistan.

Suggestions for eliminating disintegration in Pakistan

Therefore, Pakistan can achieve harmony by taking timely initiatives, as these changes will take time.

  • First, it should raise awareness at the root level of school education. Students can learn to accept the differences of opinion and mingle with each other to mitigate them. Similarly, the government should start informing people through different channels, such as newspapers, TV, and social media. Moreover, youth can arrange programms at the university level so that the majority will get to know the importance of national cohesion for the country.
  • In addition, to resolve the conflict of provinces and the grievances of Pashtun, the government should create new provinces to govern them effectively. Through that, the distribution of resources would be easier, and people would have more facilities and opportunities. It would also bring about regional stability. Hence, the step of making new provinces can act as a reinforcing element in national integration.

Critical Analysis

National integration promotes social stability and harmony, bolsters national unity, and guarantees inclusive development in the country. Similarly, national integration in Pakistan possesses a lot of importance as it results in peaceful multi-cultural, multi-ethnic, multi-lingual and multi-religious societies. Sadly, Pakistan has suffered due to national disintegration, resulting in the painful tragedy of East Pakistan’s downfall. Therefore, national integration plays a key role in collectivism and unity in the country. It should be addressed first through education, awareness, and providing equal distribution to all provinces. Thus, it will promote social stability and harmony, bolster national unity, and guarantee inclusive development in the country.


To conclude, national integration is essential for the peace and harmony of Pakistan. It is a known fact that Pakistan has multiple ethnic and religious populations that are facing complications due to the factors mentioned above. The country’s integrity is in turmoil, but it can be overcome by taking the right measures and addressing the concerns of every ethnicity. Therefore, national integration is significant for Pakistan and can channel a soft image of the country globally.

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