CSS Solved International Relations 2022 Past Paper | Explain the objectives and determinants of Pakistan’s foreign policy
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In this question, the examiner has asked to explain the objectives and determinants of the foreign policy of Pakistan. So, first of all, you will give an introduction to the question. Then you will highlight the foreign policy: definition, objectives, and determinants. In addition, you will delve into the objectives of Pakistan’s foreign policy. Then you will elaborate on the determinants of Pakistan’s foreign policy. In the end, you will give a critical analysis followed by a conclusion.
2- Defining foreign policy
3- Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s vision of the foreign policy of Pakistan
4- An overview of the objectives of Pakistan’s foreign policy
- ✓ Short-range objectives
- ✓ Middle-range objectives
- ✓ Long-range objectives
5- A glimpse of the determinants of Pakistan’s foreign policy
- ✓ External factors
- ✓ Internal factors
6- Critical Analysis: A roadmap to approach national interest through a theoretical perspective
Answer to the Question
Foreign policy cogitates the sovereignty of the state to chalk out the external decision keeping in view national interests through bilateral and multilateral interactions. The same case goes for the newly born state of Pakistan, the enactment of values and goals driving through political, social, and, above all, economic aims in the international saga. The vision of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, deliberates friendly relations with other states, abandons coercive behavior towards other states, and promotes peace and prosperity in the world. However, the objectives of Pakistan’s foreign policy involve short-range objectives, middle-range objectives, and long-range objectives. To be more specific, augmenting cordial and amicable relations, an amalgamation of nations’ commercial and economic cooperation, and protecting the interests of the Pakistani Diaspora overseas are under the shadow of all three objectives. Nevertheless, determinants of the foreign policy of Pakistan: external factors and internal factors are as quoted in the account. A critical analysis is to highlight the road map approach to maintain amicable relations.
“Pakistan not only means freedom and independence but the Muslim Ideology which has to be preserved, which has come to us as a precious gift and treasure and which, we hope other will share with us.”—Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Defining foreign policy
Foreign policy can be defined as relations between sovereign states. It is a reflection of domestic politics and an interaction among sovereign states. It indicates the principles and preferences on which a country can augment relations with another country. In simple words, a country’s foreign policy, in a sense, is a projection of its internal policies: social, political, and, above all, economic. As International Relations have been evolving since the treaty of Westphalia, the conduct, methods and scope of foreign policy have been unrolled. Global, regional and bilateral interactions fall within the arena of foreign policy, in the age of Globalization. Terms like cultural diplomacy, citizen diplomacy, commercial diplomacy, defense diplomacy, digital diplomacy, economic diplomacy and regional diplomacy are fall under the paradigm of foreign policy.
“Foreign policy is like human relations; only people know less about each other.—Joe Biden
Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s vision of the foreign policy of Pakistan
In the maiden speech of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, after the formation of the newly born state Pakistan, with the people of the US in February 1948, the following aims of Pakistan’s foreign policy has highlighted as under
“Our foreign policy is one of friendliness and goodwill towards all the nations of the world. We do not cherish aggressive designs against any country or nation. We believe in the principle of honesty and fair play in national and international dealings and are prepared to make our contribution to the promotion of peace and prosperity among the nations of the world. Pakistan will never be found lacking in extending its material and moral support to the oppressed and suppressed peoples of the world and in upholding the principles of the United Nations Charter.”—Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah
However, the legality of the guideline of the foreign policy of Pakistan has been enshrined in Article 40 of the constitution of Pakistan; it states that “the State shall endeavor to preserve and strengthen fraternal relations among Muslim countries based on Islamic unity, support the common interests of the peoples of Asia, Africa, and Latin America, promote international peace and security, foster goodwill and friendly relations among all nations and encourage the settlement of international disputes by peaceful means.”
An overview of the objectives of Pakistan’s foreign policy
- Short range objectives
– Augmenting cordial and amicable relations with all countries of the world, particularly, superpowers and immediate neighbours
The approach of “act balancing” is highly cited in this regard. Quaid’s policy of “enmity with none, and peace with all” is the core principle of the foreign policy of Pakistan. The brotherly relation with Afghanistan, owing to ethnic similarities; however, almost 3 lakh Afghan refugees have been accommodated through economic and social development. Similarly, the relationship between Pakistan and China sparks a bright future of its foreign policy to enhance regional and national peace and security through China Pakistan economic corridor (CPEC). However, relation with Russia is improving with the passage of time, the gas pipeline, and support Pakistan’s full membership in Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). In the same manner, Pakistan remains neutral in the Ukraine-Russia war. Nevertheless, Pakistan tries to maintain its relationship with the US through assistance in the war on terror, cooperation against the Soviet Union, reconciliation talks with Afghan Taliban, and a mediator role among the superpowers: the US and China. Pakistan pursued bilateral relations with other Muslim countries, after Independence. As the famous realist dictum asserts, “states neither having permanent friends nor permanent enemies” goes by, the success of the foreign policy, therefore, depends on rationality and its close consonance with the grand strategy, security policy, and domestic policy of a country.
- Middle range objectives
– The amalgamation of commercial and economic cooperation of the nation with the international community
The legalistic approach delves into the study of foreign policy in legalistic terms. Efforts are made to study the external relations of the states in light of international law, treaties, agreements, and constitutional provisions. Similarly, cooperation in macroeconomic and exchange rate policies generally means redirecting and increasing the economic role of the government of Pakistan. Pakistan’s economy is integrated into the world with strong trade ties to the EU and economic alliances and agreements with many Asian nations. China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA), and World Trade Organization (WTO) are some of the examples to be quoted here.
- Long range objectives
– Protecting the interests of Pakistani the diaspora overseas
The government of Pakistan, the Ministry of Overseas Pakistanis, has drafted a first-ever National Policy for Overseas Pakistanis with a focus on maximizing welfare and empowerment of the Pakistani diaspora working in different countries across the globe. According to a recent article written by Dr. Marta Bolognani, “Changing Perceptions about Home: The Life of Second and Third Generation” highlights that second and third-generation Pakistanis in Britain still maintain very close relationships with Pakistan. One-third of Pakistanis in Britain visit Pakistan each year.
A glimpse of the determinants of Pakistan’s foreign policy
The ideological Approach tries to analyze the foreign policy as an expression of the prevailing political, social or religious beliefs. Thus, the policies are classified as democratic or authoritarian; liberal and socialistic, and peace-loving or aggressive. However, the study of foreign policy purely on an ideological basis is not possible because when there is the clash between ideology and rational interests, the former is abandoned. The ideology of Pakistan cannot be ignored while determining its foreign policy. As the ideology of Pakistan is based on Islam, so, the Islamic teachings of the Quran and Sunnah are always taken into consideration while determining the foreign policy of Pakistan. The teachings of Islam are placed at the top of the foreign policy of Pakistan. For instance, Pakistan is always the one to raise its voice if any blasphemous act happens anywhere in the world because it is not acceptable for Pakistan to bear any offensive act against Islam.
“Pakistan came into being as a result of the urge felt by the Muslims of this subcontinent to secure territory, however, limited, where the Islamic Ideology and way of life could be practised and demonstrated to the world.”— Liaquat Ali Khan, the first Prime Minister of Pakistan
Terrain plays a very vital role in forming the foreign policy of Pakistan. The ports, seas, and neighboring states are very significant for Pakistan. Besides having fertile soil and immense natural resources, the location of Pakistan at the corridor of the global oil-providing states like Iran enhances the geo-strategic importance of the Pakistan manifold. Moreover, the ongoing CPEC project has also exaggerated the geographic importance of Pakistan. So, Pakistan’s foreign policy is devised while considering the geographic factors as well.
“The foreign policy of any state is determined by its geography.”— Napoleon Bonaparte
- History, tradition, custom, norms and culture
Pakistan has diverse history and culture. In the past, Pakistan had clashes with India and Bangladesh, so those states still have feelings of animosity toward Pakistan. So, Pakistan has to consider the historical facts while devising foreign policy. Moreover, the diverse culture is also a challenging factor for Pakistan, so this factor is also deliberated in the formation of foreign policy.
- Economic compulsions
Pakistan being a developing state, has to face enormous challenges on the economic front as Pakistan is reliant on foreign aid and has a weak internal economy. So, it is highly dependent on various states like the US, China, and the Gulf States to fulfil its economic needs. So, in this scenario, Pakistan can’t devise an independent foreign policy.
- National security
In the foreign policy of Pakistan, national security is very important. There are various internal and external security challenges to Pakistan. Defence against the aggressive state has always remained a key determinant of Pakistan’s foreign policy. This particular aspect is always at the top of the rung for Pakistan owing to its aggressive neighbour. As regards to aspect, the foreign policy of Pakistan has always remained India-centric.
“National security is the first duty of government but we are also committed to reversing the substantial erosion of civil liberties.”— Theresa May
- Neutrality and sovereign decisions
The principle of neutrality has always remained a top priority of the foreign policymakers of Pakistan. Pakistan has always tried its best to stay neutral in any conflict or war between other states of the world. This very approach of Pakistan is directed towards the fact that Pakistan is a supporter of peace, harmony, and cooperation. One of the examples of neutrality from Pakistan was exhibited when in 2015; the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia asked Pakistan for military assistance in the Yemen war against the Houthi rebels but Pakistan does not agree to provide support and decided to stay neutral.
- Domestic policies
As domestic strategies play a very vital role in the foreign policy of Pakistan. So, the policymakers of Pakistan need to understand that the foreign policy of any state cannot be successful if the state is weak internally. The inter-provincial disputes in Pakistan and controversy over NFC awards, and many other domestic reasons have also negatively impacted the foreign policy of Pakistan. So, a stable and peaceful domestic environment plays a very important role in the success of the foreign policy of Pakistan.
- Global synopsis
Every country prepares its foreign policy in response to the current global situation. Likewise, Pakistan’s foreign policymakers have always defined the policy in light of the current global scenario. Broadly speaking, Pakistan has stayed close to the Global north, joining coalitions such as SEATO and CENTO and playing its part in the global war on terror.
Critical Analysis: A roadmap to approach national interest through a theoretical perspective
Approaches to Foreign Policy are historical or traditional; these approaches have been adopted for the study of diplomatic events of a particular period with accuracy, and precision, so as to learn lessons for the future on the basis of past experience: the legislative approach, the descriptive approach, and the ideological approach. Pakistan has always tried its best to project its soft image through its foreign policy. Being a state of immense geo-strategic importance, it has always made sure that there should be an environment of peace in its neighbouring states as well. If Pakistan does not make appropriate amendments to its foreign policy strategy, it will continue to experience increasing external challenges in the coming days. Aside from the United States and China, the administration should expand the country’s relations by cultivating strong ties with Russia, the United Kingdom, France, and Germany. For greater regional cooperation and connectivity, it is also critical to bridge differences with Afghanistan and cultivates strong relations with both Kabul and Tehran.
To pen down more prescribed, the respect of sovereignty and territorial integrity is to determine the state’s foreign policy. Its foreign policy of Pakistan underlines amicable relations with other states and promotes peace and prosperity in the world. The objectives of foreign policy of Pakistan are augmenting cordial relations, an amalgamation of commercial and economic cooperation, and protecting the interests of the Pakistani diaspora overseas. In addition, the determinants of the foreign policy of Pakistan are ideology, terrain, history, tradition, custom, norms, economic compulsions, national security, sovereign decisions, and domestic policies. However, a critical analysis reveals the approaches to enacting foreign policy more smoothly and flexibly.
“Foreign policy is really domestic policy with its hat on.”—Hubert H. Humphrey
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