Explain Plato’s Theory of Justice. How he tries to implement it through the Education System?


CSS Solved Political Science Past Papers 2001, 2006 I Explain Plato’s Theory of Justice. How he tries to implement it through the Education System?.

The following question is attempted by Miss Durr e Shahwar Khan, the top scorer in CSS Political Science papers. Moreover, the answer is written on the same pattern, taught by Sir to his students, scoring the highest marks in compulsory subjects for years. This solved past paper question is uploaded to help aspirants understand how to crack a topic or question, how to write relevantly, what coherence is, and how to include and connect ideas, opinions, and suggestions to score the maximum.

Question breakdown

In this question, the examiner has asked to explain Plato’s theory of justice. So, first of all, you will give a brief introduction. Next, you will elaborate on his theory of justice in detail. Then you will shed light on Plato’s education system. After that, you will explain how Plato implements Justice through the education system followed by a critical analysis and conclusion. By following this approach, you will be scoring the highest marks. Usually, aspirants start writing answers without breaking the topic into its asked segments. So, let me write the answer for you to understand how to attempt a Political Science question to score the maximum.


1- Introduction

2- Plato’s Idea of Justice

  • Arrangement of the human soul
    • Reason
    • Spirit
    • Appetite
  • Division of labour
    • Ruler class
    • Guardian class
    • Working class

3- Education system of Plato

  • ✓ Elementary education
  • ✓ Higher education

4- The implication of justice through education

  • ✓ Education is a tool to achieve justice

5- Critical Analysis

6- Conclusion

Answer to the question


In Plato’s philosophy, the idea of justice holds a very significant place. He considered justice to be one of the four virtues essential for the perfect functioning of a state. Justice, in his notion, is doing one’s natural job without interfering with others. For Plato, the foundation of the state is to be built on the principle of justice. Moreover, to Plato, Justice is a public and a private virtue. It is the performance of duty and not the enjoyment of rights. it requires an individual to perform its function for which one is fit by nature to serve one’s own and common good.  Furthermore, Plato tries to implement justice in the state through education. For the realization of justice in the state, Plato’s scheme of education is regarded as a spiritual remedy. Besides, Plato maintains that education is a way to justice.

“Justice is the hinge of Plato’s thoughts.”

Dr. Barker

Plato’s theory of justice

Plato rejected the prevailing concepts of Justice and put forth his own. For him, justice must exist, both at an individual and societal level. In his view, justice,  in the state,  exists in a very noticeable and bigger form, so he put forward his theory of justice in relation with the state. For Plato, justice is a human virtue and the bond, which links individuals together in the state. It is the harmonious strength of the soul.

Moreover, In view of Plato, cities, and states emerge out of two reasons;  aptitude differences in individuals and mutual needs. He asserted that an individual is an organic entity, an integral part of the establishment.

✓ Arrangement of the human soul

According to Plato, the human soul is tripartite in nature. It possesses three constituents; Reason, Spirit, and Appetite.

  1. Reason is the desire for knowledge
  2. Spirit is quality or attitude
  3. Appetite is the desire of the body.

Plato believed that an individual is just when reason is dominant over spirit and appetite. Thus, when all three constituents agree that reason should rule alone, there will be justice within the individuals. This is the proper arrangement of the human soul.

✓ Division of labour

There are three social classes, corresponding to the above three constituents of the human soul.

  1. Ruling class or philosopher:  This class represents the reason.
  2. Guardian or warrior class: This class represents spirit.
  3. Working class: This class consists of workers, farmers, and artisans. And they also represent appetite.
Table by Miss Durr e Shahwar

Each soul is predominated by one of the three qualities. Individuals who are predominately rational, form the ruling class, and wisdom is the virtue of such a soul. Likewise, warriors are those whose predominant quality is spirit, and their virtue is courage. However, Individuals with appetitive souls exhibit a fondness for material possessions.  These are from the working class.

Conclusively, justice for Plato is the will to focus on one’s own domain of obligation and not to meddle with the domain of others.

✓ Important features of Plato’s idea of justice

  • Functional specialization

Based on the dominant character of the soul, the state is divided into three classes. Every individual in the state will only perform assigned duty. It is the founding principle of the state that each individual, in the state, should practice only one thing, and that thing should be the one to which the individual’s nature is  best adapted

  • Mutual non-interference

Moreover, these three classes should not interfere with each other’s functions. For Plato, the principle of true justice is non-interference. He views the state as a perfect whole.  In which each individual component functions not for its own sake,  but for the well-being of the whole.

  • Communal harmony

The preceding two conditions contribute to the creation of a harmonious atmosphere in society. The implication of Plato’s justice theory is precisely this harmony.

Plato’s education system

Plato’s education system is divided into  two levels;

  1. Elementary Education
  2. Higher Education.

1- Elementary education

Plato asserts that there should be predominantly physical education during the first ten years. Apart from physical education music, history, science, and mathematics should be taught at this level.

According to Plato, at the age of 20 children must take an examination that would determine whether or not to pursue higher education. Those who fail the examinations will join the working class of society.

2- Higher education

However, those who pass the exam will pursue higher education for another 10 years. During this period, geometry, astronomy, arithmetic, and dialectic should be taught. Then, at the age of 30, there would be another exam, and people who fail it will join the guardian class of society.

On the other hand, those who pass the exam will take another 20 years of education in dialectics. Finally, at the age of 50  qualifiers will form the ruler class of society

✓ Implication of justice through the education system

To Plato, education is an agency to achieve justice, both at social and individual levels. Individual justice, according to Plato, can be attained when each individual maximizes his ability. So, justice implies excellence. According to Plato, excellence is virtue and virtue is knowledge. Hence, knowledge is a prerequisite for justice. Furthermore, he maintains that virtue can be attained through three stages of knowledge development: self-knowledge, knowledge regarding the idea of good, and knowledge of one’s job.

In addition to that, Plato asserts that social justice is possible when all social classes within a society, including rulers,  worriers, and workers, live in harmony. Plato believes that, if society provides people equal educational opportunities to compete fairly with one another from an early age, they can co-exist in harmony. However, an unjust society will emerge, without equal educational opportunity, as the political system will be run by unqualified individuals.

Hence, Plato’s education system play’s a very crucial role in the implication of justice in society. Because it is through education that individuals get to know their abilities and then work in their specialized domain. Moreover, education helps individuals learn about social consciousness and enlightens individuals to fulfill their appointed functions. Education teaches individuals how and in what manner they will perform their specialized functions to ensure justice in the state.

Furthermore, Plato maintains that education is the tool for the operation of justice in the ideal state. He believes that the root of vice is primarily ignorance, and one can only be converted into a virtuous man, through proper education.

Critical Analysis

In the critical diagnosis, Plato’s theory of justice is not concerned with legality but with social morality. It is, therefore, neither a subject of law nor a subject of individual ethics, it is rather a harmony of the two. It studies the means by which collective good can be achieved in society. Hence, justice in the state is a principle of functional specialization and Plato’s education system is the tool for the implementation of justice in the ideal state


In the nutshell, Plato’s justice is a principle of non-interference that keeps various members of each class, various classes of society, and various elements in the soul of an individual within proper boundaries. Therefore, justice in the state is a principle of functional specialization, and the specialization of functions leads to efficiency. Furthermore, Plato’s education system is designed to establish a society that operates at the pinnacle of efficiency, where every individual is specialized in their function, contributing to the greater good of the state. Within this framework, justice is the ultimate goal – a principle that aligns perfectly with functional specialization, as it ensures that every member of society is equipped with the skills and knowledge necessary to perform their role to the best of their ability. Conclusively, Plato’s education system leads to justice in the ideal state.

CSS Solved Past Papers’ Essays

Looking for the last ten years of CSS and PMS Solved Essays and want to know how Sir Kazim’s students write and score the highest marks in the essays’ papers? Then, click on the CSS Solved Essays to start reading them.

CSS Solved Essays

CSS Solved General Science & Ability Past Papers

Want to read the last ten years’ General Science & Ability Solved Past Papers to learn how to attempt them and to score high? Let’s click on the link below to read them all freely. All past papers have been solved by Miss Iqra Ali & Dr Nishat Baloch, Pakistan’s top CSS GSA coach having the highest score of their students. 

General Science & Ability Solved Past Papers

CSS Solved Pakistan Affairs Past Papers

Want to read CSS Pakistan Affairs Solved Past Papers and learn how to attempt them to score high? Let’s click on the link below to read them all freely. All past papers’ questions have been attempted by Sir Kazim’s students, who scored the highest in the subject.

CSS Solved Pakistan Affairs

CSS Solved International Relations’ Past Papers

Have you opted for International Relations in the CSS examination and want to score above 150? Then, click on the CSS Solved International Relations’ Past Papers by Miss Abeera Fatima, the top IR scorer and the best IR coach in Pakistan. 

CSS Solved International Relations Past Papers

Articles Might Interest You!

The following are some of the most important articles for CSS and PMS aspirants. Click on any to start reading.

List of Important Idioms for PMS Punjab
List of Important Antonyms for PMS Punjab
How To Write an Evidence in the CSS and PMS Essay Body
How Did I Prepare and Qualify for the PMS Essay and Precis Paper?
100 Must-Read Essays and Solved Past Papers Questions for CSS, PMS Aspirants
Why Do Most CSS, PMS Aspirants Fail Exams?
How Much Is English Important for CSS, PMS Aspirants?
Best CSS and PMS English Essay and Precis Teacher in Pakistan
High-Frequency Words for CSS, PMS Aspirants
CSS Solved Pakistan Affairs Past Papers 
CSS Solved General Science and Ability Past Papers 
CSS Solved Sentence Corrections with Explanations by Sir Kazim
Who Is The Best CSS English Essay and Precis Teacher in Pakistan?
Share Via
Recent Posts


Education Company


Welcome to Cssprepforum, Pakistan’s largest learning management system (LMS) with millions of questions along with their logical explanations educating millions of learners, students, aspirants, teachers, professors, and parents preparing for a successful future. 

Founder: Syed Kazim Ali
Founded: 2020
Phone: +92-332-6105-842
Students Served: 10 Million
Daily Learners: 50,000
Offered Courses: Visit Courses  

More Courses

RS 7000
3 Weeks


RS 15000
Extensive English Essay & Precis Course for CSS
4 Weeks


RS 15000
2 Weeks


error: Content is protected !!