CSS Solved Business Administration Past Paper 2018 | What is Training Need Analysis, why is it important to conduct it and what should it evaluate. What are the types of training methods and which training method should be employed for each type of training need?
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Managing human resource is an art for every organization to succeed. Training is one part of HRM that can build human capabilities and motivate them towards goal. Be it training, recruiting or motivation, CSS examiners lay special focus of human resource management.
Subject: Human Resource Management
Training is an integral part of human resource management, along with planning and performance appraisal. Training helps an organization to equip its employees with the necessary skills and abilities to achieve organizational goals. Training need is a complex process revolving around organizational needs and personal analysis. Furthermore, there are two types of training methods: on-the-job and off-the-job training, both meant to serve different purposes. Thus, training is useful to drive the organization towards its goals.
What is Training Need Analysis:
Training need analysis is the process of identifying the gap between actual performance and desired performance. Training is designed to help the organization accomplish its objective. To compete effectively, the firm must have a well-trained human resource. The real purpose of need analysis is to determine if and what sort of training is needed. Furthermore, providing information required to design training programs.
Levels of Training Needs:
There are three levels of training analysis that can help determine the training needs for the organization.
- Organizational Analysis:
It is the examination of the problems that an organization is experiencing and where they are located. Employees that are not aligned with business goals are a waste of resources. All external and internal forces that can influence training must be considered when doing organizational analysis. An important source for organizational analysis is operational measures of organizational performance.
- Task Analysis:
This level considers the skills and capabilities required to accomplish a task. Job description and job specification are vital sources of information for performance expectations and skills required to achieve that performance level.
- Individual Analysis:
This level examines how well the individual is performing their task; it is the difference between actual and desired performance. Data sources such as performance appraisals, interviews, questionnaires and assessments of employees skills are helpful in analyzing performance. Training must be clear, aligned with the areas identified in task analysis and achievable.
Why is it Important to Conduct Training Need Analysis:
- It enables the organization to identify knowledge and skills gap before they become a problem. It is a proactive approach that helps to highlight a potential problem that could result in future losses.
- It enables training to be focused in the right areas. The training needs analysis determines the potential gap that needs training. In circumstances when training is not required, it becomes a waste of time and money.
- It is a source for shortlisting employees that need training. The key to planning training is to identify the right people and the right type of training. Providing training to efficient workers may result in demotivated and disengaged staff.
- Training needs analysis opens up new avenues of training requirements. Need assessment provides the background to the ground that can aid it in identifying new areas where training can be helpful.
- Need Assessment is the source to better manage resources and improve the productivity of both: individuals and organizations.
What should it evaluate?
The core purpose of need assessment is to identify discrepancies in performance. There are certain factors that need consideration:
- The number of employees that are experiencing skills deficiency.
- The intensity of skill deficiency.
- How important is the skill: if there is a need for training or is it negligible.
- The degree to which training can improve that skill.
Training needs analysis is the first step towards improving employee performance. The underlying purpose of this whole process is to evaluate:
- The desired performance level by the organization and current level.
- The skills, abilities and competencies of employees part of the organization
- It should determine the required skills and type of training.
- Improvement in performance output after training is provided.
Types of Training Methods
Once the training needs are identified, the next phase is to decide on the training method that could help achieve the desired objectives.
- Organizational Analysis:
- Competency-based assessment:
It can be in various forms, such as behavioural assessment, skills checklist, gap analysis and aptitude tests. It aids in identifying areas where employees possess core competency and have the ability to perform specific tasks.
- 360-degree feedback:
In this method, the knowledge, skills and abilities are assessed by both the employee and the immediate supervisor. It helps in providing accurate data to identify strengths and weaknesses.
An effective means to transmit a large amount of factual information to a large number of people.
- Coaching and mentoring:
Providing emotional support and encouragement is part of this method. Immediate supervisor having experience and expertise often provides coaching.
- Task Analysis:
In this method, a training site is set up that is identical to the work site. It replicates the equipment and work demands of job. It allows employees to learn under realistic pressure but free from the pressure of production schedules.
Group discussions and conferences are also useful tools for training.
- Role Playing:
Participants are required to respond to specific problems that they actually face in performing jobs in reality.
- Individual Analysis:
In this method, the newly hired workers are associated with skilled labour to learn from their experience.
Although similar to apprenticeship, it involves a higher level of formal education. Usually, educational institutions provide this in collaboration with business entities.
Simulations that represent an actual business situation
- TNA Questionnaire:
A survey form is sent out to each learner to rate himself on various skills, knowledge and capabilities.
Training is essential to ensure that organizational goals are achieved and employees are able to perform according to desired levels. There are three levels of training needed: organizational level, task level and individual analysis. Once the training needs are identified next phase is to select from a variety of methods to implement the training.
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