PMS 2016 Solved Pakistan Affairs Past Papers | “The Initial Years of Pakistan Were Crucial for its Existence.” Discuss
The following question of CSS Pakistan Affairs 2016 is solved by Quirat Khan under the supervision of Miss Nirmal Hasni. She learnt how to attempt 20 marks question and essay writing from Sir Syed Kazim Ali, Pakistan’s best CSS and PMS English essay and precis teacher with the highest success rate of his students. This solved past paper question is attempted on the pattern taught by Sir to his students, scoring the highest marks in compulsory and optional subjects for years, and uploaded to help aspirants understand how to crack a topic or question, how to write relevantly, what coherence is, and how to include and connect ideas, opinions, and suggestions to score the maximum.
2- The state of Pakistan at independence
3- Why the initial years were crucial for Pakistan’s existence.
- ✓ The political foundation of Pakistan laid the groundwork for administration.
- ✓ National security was prioritized to combat external challenges.
- ✓ Social harmony was ensured by promoting nationalism.
- ✓ The economic system was streamlined.
4- Critical Analysis
Answer to the Question
“There is no power on earth that can undo Pakistan.”Quaid-e-Azam
Pakistan got its independence by fighting many odds. The sacrifice of millions of people and the persistent efforts of leaders like Quaid-e-Azam and Liaqat Ali Khan ensured its existence. However, as a new state, with the bare minimum accessories and resources required to run the state, many challenges confronted the country. These included the need to lay the foundations of a seamless political and economic system, as well as to ensure national unity in the ethnically diverse nation. Moreover, the country also had to secure its national security amidst the early wars with India over Kashmir. Thus, the initial years of Pakistan were crucial for its existence.
The state of Pakistan at Independence
Pakistan had a fragile state of independence. The country was not granted a fair share of economic and military resources. For example, the Indian army was divided in a ratio of 65 to 35 for India and Pakistan. Moreover, out of the 4 billion rupees, a mere sum of 750 million was given to Pakistan, with lengthy delays. Having poor economic and military resources, many analysts predicted the bankruptcy and eventual fall of Pakistan. To make matters worse, the migration of millions of refugees coupled with communal violence led to 1 million deaths. Additionally, a war broke out in Kashmir with India, making the problems further convoluted. The need to set up administration among two wings, East Pakistan and West Pakistan, separated by 1000 miles, was another challenge. Despite the many odds, the leadership of Pakistan stood firmly and provided the state with the necessities that ensured its existence.
Why the initial years were crucial for Pakistan’s existence.
The following reasons explain why the initial years were crucial for the existence of Pakistan as a nation-state.
1- Political foundation of Pakistan laid the groundwork for administration.
“Democracy is in the blood of the Muslims, who look upon complete equality of mankind, and believe in fraternity, equality, and liberty.”Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Political foundations are necessary to set up the system of governance in a country. Pakistan, too, needed such a system. The founder of Pakistan, Quaid-e-Azam, adopted a democratic framework for the country. He was able to put the political development in motion by setting the constituent assembly to establish a constitution; unfortunately, he did not live long enough to draft the constitution. That is one of the reasons for the delayed constitution of Pakistan that eventually undermined democracy. Nevertheless, the democratic political systems provided Pakistan with security and a sense of welcome from the international community, especially from the West. Additionally, the system of governance provided the country with a national administration structure to deal with the impending challenges. Without the existence of a political system, Pakistan would have remained mired in ethnic clashes and security dilemmas.
2- National security was prioritized to combat external challenges.
“The weak and defenceless, in this world, invite aggression from others.”Quaid-e-Azam
As immediately after independence, the country had a war with India; it was essential for Pakistan to establish a credible defence system that would ensure the national security of the state. The Pakistani military displayed exemplary bravery and tactics to give a tough fight to its eastern neighbours, proving the strong defence and the retaliation capability of Pakistan in the war of 1948. Moreover, Pakistan also had to secure its border and make a definite borderline to control the influx of refugees and the rising communal violence. For the existence of Pakistan, it was necessary to make the country a harmonious place free from security dilemmas. The resilience and strength portrayed in the initial years were to define the standing and stability of Pakistan. Therefore, ensuring national security was a foremost priority.
3- Social harmony was ensured by promoting nationalism.
“You are free to; you are free to go to any temples; you are free to go to your mosques or to any other place of worship in this State of Pakistan. You belong to any religion, cast or creed- that has nothing to do with the business of the state.”Quaid Aug 11, 1947, constituent assembly speech
Pakistan has always had an ethnically and culturally diverse population. Minorities, such as Christians and Hindus, also resided in the country. Thus, for its stability, it was essential to promote the spirit of nationalism in the country. Although the country was established based on the Two Nation Theory, the founder, Jinnah, made sure to emphasize the need for national unity to make the people realize that Pakistan is not a Muslim-only state. This was essential, especially in light of the communal violence and large swathes of non-Muslims migrating to India. Additionally, factional political parties, backed by ethnic ties, were gradually rising. To put an end to such menace, Pakistan had to ensure unity among the people. Without national unity, the prospects for the survival of Pakistan would have remained gloomy.
4- The economic system was streamlined.
“A country without a strong economy is at the mercy of International Financial Institutions (IFIs).”Quaid-e-Azam
The economic system is the bedrock for stability and progress. Pakistan, unfortunately, was short on financial resources. Without finances, it would have been impossible to fight the wars against India and provide for the needs of the people. Hence, an economic system was needed. In the early years, loans were requested from princely states to suffice the administrative needs. The State Bank of Pakistan was established in 1948, and the first currency notes were issued. Furthermore, for economic development, a Fist Five Yearly Plan was initiated. Such initiatives laid the founding principles for the economic system of Pakistan.
The political and economic foundations laid in the early years decided Pakistan’s development trajectory. For which the founder of Pakistan, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, and his close companion, Liaqat Ali Khan, made every possible effort to guarantee a steel framework for Pakistan. Unfortunately, their early demise left some challenges untangled. Moreover, a power vacuum was created, making Pakistan the victim of political dissent. Additionally, the imperative integration of the military with governance in the face of early wars created a disbalance in civil-military relations. Since then, political dissent and contentious civil-military relations have seriously undermined democratic and economic development in Pakistan. Nonetheless, with the minute resources available, Pakistan not only ensured its existence but also developed the prerequisite systems to run the nation.
In conclusion, the plethora of challenges confronting Pakistan and the sceptical view of the enemies of the state were a threat to the existence of the country. Hence, political, economic, social and security developments were crucial for the initial years of Pakistan as they laid the groundwork for the future strength and prospects of Pakistan. It was, indeed, the relentless efforts of the early leaders that shaped the governmental institutions and ensured unity in Pakistan. Thereby making Pakistan prosper with its own distinct ideology and presence on the world map.
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