The Evolution of the Democratic System has Always Remained a Dilemma in Pakistan, Even After Passing More Than Seven Decades of its Existence the Democracy Could Not Get its Roots. Discuss in Detail.


CSS Solved Pakistan Affairs Past Papers | The Evolution of the Democratic System has Always Remained a Dilemma in Pakistan, Even After Passing More Than Seven Decades of its Existence the Democracy Could Not Get its Roots. Discuss in Detail.

The following question of CSS Current Affairs 2023 is solved by Miss Nirmal Hasni. She learnt how to attempt 20 marks question and essay writing from Sir Syed Kazim Ali, Pakistan’s best CSS and PMS English essay and precis teacher with the highest success rate of his students. This solved past paper question is attempted on the pattern taught by Sir to his students, scoring the highest marks in compulsory and optional subjects for years, and uploaded to help aspirants understand how to crack a topic or question, how to write relevantly, what coherence is, and how to include and connect ideas, opinions, and suggestions to score the maximum.

Question breakdown

The aforementioned question demands an overview of the topsy-turvy cycle of political decades where democracy has always been thrashed and neglected. The examiner seeks to know the reasons why democracy could not flourish in Pakistan yet in detail.


1- Introduction

2- Pakistan’s democratic system at a glance

  • Chronological sequence of democracy in Pakistan

3- Which factors tangled the democracy in Pakistan for 7 decades?

  • Role of Political Parties
  • Military Interventions
  • Weak Institutions and corruption legacy
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Role of External Factors
  • Civil Society and Media

4- Prospects for Democratic Consolidation

5- Critical Analysis of democratic ups and Downs in Pakistan

6- Conclusion

Answer to the Question


Pakistan, a country that gained independence in 1947, has struggled with the evolution of its democratic system since its inception. Despite more than seven decades of existence, democracy in Pakistan has been marked by a continuous dilemma and has failed to establish firm roots. The enunciation of democratic events elaborated below will delve into the challenges and factors that have impeded the growth of democracy in Pakistan, analyzing the historical context, the role of political parties, military interventions, weak institutions, socioeconomic factors, external influences, and the role of civil society and media. By examining these aspects, we can gain a comprehensive understanding of the complex dynamics that have hindered the evolution of democracy in Pakistan. Ultimately, it becomes clear that sustained efforts, reforms, and civic awareness are necessary to strengthen the democratic system and pave the way for a more stable and inclusive future.

Pakistan’s Democratic System at a Glance:

Pakistan adopted a democratic system of governance upon its independence in 1947. The country’s constitution, formulated in 1956, established a parliamentary democracy with a President as the head of state and a Prime Minister as the head of government. However, Pakistan’s democratic journey has been tumultuous, characterized by periods of military rule and political instability. The ongoing dilemma surrounding the evolution of Pakistan’s democracy has witnessed:

  • Military Interventions:

Pakistan has experienced several military coups and periods of martial law throughout its history. The military has wielded significant influence over the political landscape, often interrupting democratic processes and governance. Prominent examples include the coups in 1958, 1977, and 1999, which had long-lasting effects on democratic institutions.

  • Political Instability:

The country has witnessed frequent changes in government, with democratic transitions often marred by instability. Political parties have struggled to maintain stability within their ranks, leading to internal power struggles and factionalism. This has hindered the development of strong and cohesive political systems necessary for democratic consolidation.

  • Dysfunctional Institutions:

Pakistan’s democratic institutions have grappled with corruption, inefficiency, and a lack of accountability. The judiciary, bureaucracy, and electoral bodies have faced criticism for their inability to deliver justice, provide efficient public services, and conduct fair and transparent elections. These weaknesses have eroded public trust in the democratic system.

  • Electoral Challenges:

Pakistan has faced challenges in conducting free and fair elections. Electoral fraud, voter manipulation, and allegations of rigging have marred the electoral process. These issues have raised concerns about the legitimacy and transparency of the electoral system, undermining public confidence in democratic institutions.

  • Socioeconomic Factors:

 Pakistan’s socioeconomic landscape, characterized by widespread poverty, income inequality, and regional disparities, poses challenges to democratic development. Socioeconomic grievances often fuel political unrest and ethnic tensions, which can destabilize the democratic process and hinder inclusive governance.

  • Geostrategic Influences:

Pakistan’s democratic system has also been influenced by external factors. Foreign powers have at times exerted their influence on Pakistani politics, impacting the country’s democratic trajectory. International aid and the conditionalities attached to it have shaped policy decisions, sometimes limiting the autonomy of the democratic process.

Which factors have tangled the democracy in Pakistan for seven decades?

Multiple challenges have been pivotal in the degeneration of democracy in Pakistan.

  • Role of Political Parties and dynastic politics

Pakistan’s political landscape is characterized by the dominance of dynastic politics of a few mainstream political parties, having significant influence and power. These parties have faced internal challenges, including factionalism, power struggles, and leadership conflicts. Infighting and divisions within parties often result in the formation of factions with differing agendas and interests. Factionalism weakens party cohesion, making it difficult to pursue consistent policy agendas and undermining democratic governance. Moreover, horse trading is another challenge faced by the country’s political system.

Pakistan has yet to implement comprehensive party reforms that promote internal democracy, transparency, and accountability to overcome the party-centric and person-centric politics in Pakistan.

  • Military Interventions:

Pakistan has witnessed several military coups and periods of martial law throughout its history. The military has directly intervened in the political process, overthrowing civilian governments and assuming control. Examples include the coups in 1958 (General Ayub Khan), 1977 (General Zia-ul-Haq), and 1999 (General Pervez Musharraf). The military exerts influence through behind-the-scenes interventions, national security policies, and its role as a power broker. The military’s influence on the political landscape, its role in shaping governance, and the impact of military interventions on democratic institutions have distorted the political apparatus. The legacy of military interventions has created a cycle of political instability, hampering the consolidation of democratic governance.

  • Weak Institutions and corruption legacy:

Corruption still remains a significant challenge in Pakistan’s institutions, undermining public trust and hindering democratic progress. Weak accountability mechanisms have allowed corruption to persist among politicians, bureaucrats, and other public officials. Pakistan’s bureaucracy and judicial system have been criticized for inefficiency, delays, and lack of transparency. A backlog of cases, red tapism, and limited access to justice have contributed to a weakened democratic system. Electoral issues such as vote rigging, irregularities, and allegations of voting manipulation have plagued Pakistan’s democratic process. The pervasive nature of corruption and its detrimental effects on governance and democratic processes are fuelled by the inefficient bureaucracy, judicial system, and the lack of accountability mechanisms.

  • Socioeconomic Factors

Widespread poverty and income inequality is also posing challenges to democratic stability in Pakistan. Economic disparities can lead to social unrest, political grievances, and a lack of inclusivity in decision-making processes. Regional disparities and ethnic tensions create divisions within society and impede efforts to foster a cohesive democratic system. Ethnic conflicts and competing regional interests can undermine political stability and hinder the representation of marginalized communities. Poverty, inequality, regional disparities, and ethnic tensions, and their implications have further damaged democratic stability.

  • Role of External Factors

The complexities of external involvement in shaping democratic outcomes and the challenges faced by Pakistan’s democratic institutions have always threatened democratic growth. The dynamics of external factors and their implications for democratic governance in Pakistan have erupted in diplomatic challenges. External actors, including neighbouring countries and global powers, have historically influenced Pakistan’s political landscape. Geopolitical interests, alliances, and interference can shape domestic politics and impact democratic processes. International aid and assistance to Pakistan often come with conditionalities attached. These conditions can influence policy decisions and limit the autonomy of the democratic process, affecting governance and development. Pakistan’s geostrategic challenges, such as regional conflicts and security concerns, can impact the functioning of democratic institutions. National security priorities sometimes take precedence over democratic values, leading to restrictions on civil liberties and democratic rights.

  • Civil Society and Media

Civil society organizations play a crucial role in advocating for democratic values, human rights, and social justice in Pakistan. They contribute to public discourse, mobilize citizens, and hold the government accountable for its actions. The media plays a vital role in Pakistan’s democratic landscape by providing information, facilitating public debate, and acting as a watchdog. Media independence and freedom of the press are essential for a vibrant democratic system. Civil society organizations and the media in Pakistan face challenges, including threats, censorship, and limitations on their operations. Intimidation, harassment, and restrictions on freedom of expression can impede their ability to contribute effectively to democratic development.

Prospects for Democratic Consolidation

Pakistan has witnessed some positive developments, including peaceful transitions of power through elections. The 2018 general elections were seen as a significant step forward in terms of democratic consolidation, with a smooth transfer of power from one civilian government to another. Constitutional reforms are crucial to strengthen democratic institutions, ensure the separation of powers, and protect human rights. Reforms should focus on enhancing the independence and efficiency of institutions such as the judiciary and electoral bodies. Education and civic awareness are essential for fostering an informed and engaged citizenry. Promoting civic education, political participation, and media literacy can contribute to a more robust and sustainable democratic system.

Critical Analysis of Democratic Ups and Downs in Pakistan:

 To articulate critically, democracy in Pakistan exclaims the Marxism conflict embedded in the political culture of Pakistan where a dummy system at the local level is orchestratedto serve the objectives of the elite class encapsulating the military elite, the feudalists, the political elite, the media elite and the religious elite. In the whole saga, there is an unswerving impact of political instability, weak institutions, socioeconomic factors, and external influence on democratic development. Nonetheless, the challenges faced by political parties, the legacy of military rule, corruption, and the sluggish role of civil society and media highlight the need for constitutional reforms, effective governance, and civic awareness to tackle the challenges and find the potential solutions for democratic consolidation in Pakistan.


The idea of the substance is that the evolution of the democratic system in Pakistan has been plagued by persistent challenges and dilemmas, preventing it from firmly establishing its roots even after more than seven decades of existence. The historical context of frequent military interventions, political instability, and weak institutions have contributed to the fragility of democracy in the country. The dominance of mainstream political parties, internal party politics, and a lack of effective party reforms have also hindered democratic development. Military interventions and the influence of the military on the political landscape have further undermined the democratic process, leaving a lasting impact on democratic institutions.

Despite these challenges, civil society organizations and the media have played a crucial role in advocating for democratic principles and holding the government accountable. However, all of them have to face limitations and challenges. To overcome the dilemma and strengthen the democratic system, Pakistan needs sustained efforts and reforms. While the road to democratic consolidation in Pakistan may be long and arduous, there is hope for a stronger democratic system in the future. Hence, with concerted efforts from all stakeholders, including political leaders, civil society, media, and citizens, Pakistan can overcome its historical challenges and build a sustainable democracy that upholds the principles of inclusivity, accountability, and good governance.

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CSS 2023 Solved Pakistan Affairs

2- Write a detailed and systematic analysis of the charismatic leadership of Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad All Jinnah. The leader of Indian Muslims during the crisis-ridden decade of 1937-47.
3-Having the largest irrigation system in the world, the land of the sub-continent served as the main food supply basket for the British power for more than a century, but now Pakistan has to import food commodities. Discuss in detail the causes of this agricultural decline.
4-Industrialization is the backbone of the modem economic system and uplifts the standard of living of the masses. Elaborate causes for the hindrance of industrial development in Pakistan.
5-The evolution of the democratic system has always remained a dilemma in Pakistan, even after passing more than seven decades of its existence democracy could not get its roots. Discuss in detail.
6-Joining the US led Coalition in the War against Terrorism has Many Short and Long Term Repercussions for Pakistan. Discuss.
7-Elaborate. Pakistan is located on the cross-road of South Asia. Explain its geo-strategic/political importance and challenges.
8-Pakistan is considered to be the fifth-largest youth bulge country in the world. Given this youth bulge. Deliberate on ways forward for Sustainable Economic Development in Pakistan.

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