Industrialization is the Backbone of the Modern Economic System and Updates the Standard of Living of the Masses. Elaborate Causes for the Hindrance of Industrial Development in Pakistan.

Industrialization is the Backbone of the Modern Economic System and Updates the Standard of Living of the Masses. Elaborate Causes for the Hindrance of Industrial Development in Pakistan.

CSS Solved Pakistan Affairs Past Papers | Industrialization is the Backbone of the Modern Economic System and Updates the Standard of Living of the Masses. Elaborate Causes for the Hindrance of Industrial Development in Pakistan.

The following question of CSS Pakistan Affairs 2023 is solved by Miss Nirmal Hasni. She learnt how to attempt 20 marks question and essay writing from Sir Syed Kazim Ali, Pakistan’s best CSS and PMS English essay and precis teacher with the highest success rate of his students. This solved past paper question is attempted on the pattern taught by Sir to his students, scoring the highest marks in compulsory and optional subjects for years, and uploaded to help aspirants understand how to crack a topic or question, how to write relevantly, what coherence is, and how to include and connect ideas, opinions, and suggestions to score the maximum.

Question Breakdown

The examiner has asked about the hurdles in the way of industrial development in Pakistan. Before striking the demand of the examiner, we will first take an overview of the industrial sector’s addition toward the state’s prosperity, then hurdles will be discussed and at the end, we will formulate a multipronged strategy to bridle these obstacles to make Pakistan, a prospering state.


1- Introduction

2- Snap Shot of the Industrial Sector of Pakistan

3- Causes for the hindrance of the industrial sector in Pakistan

  • Social hindrances
  • ✓Security Concerns
  • ✓Lack of Skilled Labor
  • ✓Infrastructure Deficiencies
  • Political crisis
  • ✓political instability
  • ✓immature political policies
  • ✓Poor ease of doing business
  • Economic hurdles
  • ✓Energy Crisis
  • ✓Inadequate Access to Finance
  • ✓Water Scarcity
  • ✓Trade Imbalance
  • Technological issues
  • ✓lack of advanced technology and machinery
  • ✓Inadequate Research and Development

4- Way forward to overcome these hurdles

  • ✓Energy security
  • ✓Investment in Infrastructure
  • ✓Access to finance
  • ✓Simplify Regulatory Procedures
  • ✓Promote research and development
  • ✓Skilled workforce development
  • ✓Stable and secure Business Environment
  • ✓Encourage Public-Private Partnerships
  • ✓Encourage Public-Private Partnerships
  • ✓Promote special economic zones
  • ✓Incentives and tax reforms
  • ✓Economic Diversification: A dire need for an hour

 5- Critical analysis

 6- Conclusion

Answer to the Question


Industrialization serves as the bedrock of a modern economic system, propelling nations toward progress and elevating the living standards of their people. Its potential to drive innovation, create employment opportunities, and foster economic growth makes it a pivotal force in shaping prosperous societies. In the quest for progress and prosperity, industrialization stands as the very cornerstone of modern economies, empowering nations to enhance the quality of life for their citizens on an unprecedented scale. However, for Pakistan, a country rich in potential, the path to achieving robust industrial development has been hindered by a multitude of challenges. From energy crises and inadequate infrastructure to bureaucratic inefficiencies and political instability, these obstacles have thwarted the nation’s aspirations for accelerated industrialization. In this comprehensive exploration, we embark on a journey to unravel the intricate complexities surrounding Pakistan’s industrial landscape, seeking insights into the factors impeding its progress and unveiling strategic pathways that can lead to a resurgent era of industrialization, bolstering the nation’s economic prowess and uplifting the lives of its people.

Snap Shot of the Industrial Sector of Pakistan:

Normally, the industrial sector contributes 20% to the annual gross domestic product of the country and it is the second largest source of foreign exchange earnings. As per the official survey, the industrial sector contributed 12.4% to the GDP in 2022. It has been divided into three tiers, i.e., Large Scale Manufacturing (LSM), Small Scale Manufacturing (SSM), and Slaughtering. LSM dominates the overall manufacturing sector as it contributes 9.2% to the GDP and accounts for 74.3% of the sectorial share, SSM contributes 2% of the GDP, and its sectorial share is 15.9%. Similarly, slaughtering accounts for 1.2% of the GDP and 9.7% of the sectorial share.

Causes for the hindrance of the industrial sector in Pakistan

Industrialization indeed plays a crucial role in the modern economic system and can significantly improve the standard of living for a country’s population. However, various factors can hinder industrial development in Pakistan. Here are some of the key causes:

A- Social Hindrances

There are multifaceted social issues that have hindered industrial progress in Pakistan and these include:

  • Security Concerns

Pakistan has faced security issues and conflicts in certain regions, which can deter potential investors and disrupt industrial activities. Businesses need a stable and secure environment to operate effectively. In the last five months of the 2023 year, more than 20 terrorist attacks have been committed in Pakistan, which shows the threatened state of security in Pakistan. (Al-Jazeera). The threat of disruptions to industrial activities and the risk of investment loss discourage businesses from establishing operations in these areas.

  • Lack of Skilled Labor

The shortage of skilled labor and a mismatch between the skills demanded by industries and the skills possessed by the workforce poses a significant challenge. This gap can lead to lower productivity and hinder the growth of certain sectors.

  • Infrastructure Deficiencies

Inadequate infrastructure is a significant impediment to industrial development in Pakistan. The transportation network, including roads, railways, and ports, is outdated and unable to handle the demands of a growing economy. This not only increases logistics costs but also leads to delays in the movement of goods, affecting the overall efficiency of industries.

B- Political Dilemma

The political crisis has been an Achilles’ heel in the history of Pakistan. It has also caused resistance towards the flow of industrial sector prosperity waves.

  • Political Instability

Periodic political instability and frequent changes in government policies create an uncertain business environment. Investors may be hesitant to commit to long-term projects when the political landscape is volatile. Due to recent political turmoil, the industrial sector of Pakistan has faced a loss of approximately 10 billion dollars. (IPRI REPORT)

  • Poor status of ease of doing business

Excessive bureaucracy and complex regulatory procedures make it cumbersome for businesses to start and operate. Obtaining permits, licenses, and approvals can be time-consuming and costly, discouraging investment and hindering industrial growth. Pakistan is ranked 108 among 190 economies in the ease of doing business, according to the latest World Bank annual rating.

C- Economic Hurdles

No nation can prosper in any sector without a strong economy. Economic hurdles in Pakistan are also acting as haunting obstacles to industrial sector development. These hurdles are in the form of

  • Energy Crisis

Pakistan has been grappling with a persistent energy crisis, characterized by a widening demand-supply gap. Frequent power outages and high energy costs have severely affected industrial productivity. Insufficient and unreliable energy supply hampers industrial production and discourages potential investors from setting up manufacturing units. Due to the energy crisis, more than 30 industrial units have been closed in Pakistan in the last 5 years (ISSI JOURNAL)

  • Inadequate Access to Finance

Many small and medium-sized enterprises in Pakistan face challenges in accessing affordable credit to expand or upgrade their facilities. Limited access to finance constrains their ability to invest in new technologies and scale up their operations. Accessing a loan is a major constraint for SMEs because commercial banks are unwilling to provide loans to small enterprises because they perceive it as too risky.

  • Water Scarcity

Pakistan faces water scarcity issues due to factors such as population growth, inefficient irrigation practices, and climate change. Industries that rely heavily on water for their operations may face significant challenges. Pakistan is among the top 10 water-scarce countries and is in 4th water-insecure state in the world according to IMF and World Bank report.

  • Trade Imbalances

Trade deficits and a reliance on imports for critical raw materials and machinery can negatively impact industrial development. High import costs can make domestic production less competitive. No country in the world is self-sufficient to produce all the products. Every country has to trade certain goods to meet the demand. Pakistan has the fifth largest trade market in the world after China, India, the US, and Indonesia, but the country was ranked 42nd in terms of nominal GDP. The exports of India and Indonesia are $ 322 and $ 183 billion, and exports in Pakistan were US$ 25.3 billion in 2020, surpassing the set target, i.e., US$ 22.7 billion.

D- Technological Issues

In this age of advancement, technology is acting as a backbone of the progress and prosperity of a state by showing its miracles in almost all fields of life. Unfortunately, technological advancement is also on the back bench in Pakistan, which is showing its grave repercussions on the industrial sector. It involves

  • Inadequate Research and Development

The lack of investment in research and development limits the development of new technologies and innovative solutions necessary for industrial growth and competitiveness. Similarly, the lack of advanced machinery has also hindered industrial progress in Pakistan. The lack of research and development stifles the development of new products, processes, and technologies, hindering industrial growth and competitiveness. In Global Innovation Index, Pakistan was ranked 87th among 132 economies. This shows that the country is still lacking in innovation and technology adoption.

Way forward to promote Industrial Development

To address these hindrances and promote industrial development, Pakistan needs comprehensive policy reforms and targeted interventions. Encouraging investment in energy infrastructure, streamlining regulatory procedures, fostering skill development initiatives, ensuring political stability, promoting research and development, and investing in water management solutions are some of the key steps that can revitalize the industrial sector and enhance the overall economic landscape. Additionally, the government should collaborate closely with private sector stakeholders and international partners to create an enabling environment for sustainable industrial growth and socio-economic progress.

  • Investment in Infrastructure

Upgrading transportation networks, ports, and energy infrastructure is essential for industrial growth. Improved infrastructure will facilitate the movement of goods, reduce logistics costs, and attract more investment. In this regard, the working of CPEC projects should be fastened to get an advanced infrastructure network.

  • Energy Security

Government must adopt some multipronged strategies to overcome the energy crisis in Pakistan. There should be a paradigm shift from non-renewables to renewables which will produce energy at a cheaper rate.

  • Simplify Regulatory Procedures

Streamlining bureaucratic processes and reducing red tape will make it easier for businesses to operate and invest in Pakistan. Implementing clear and transparent regulations will enhance the ease of doing business.

  • Access to Finance

Ensuring that businesses, especially SMEs, have access to affordable credit is crucial. The government should work with financial institutions to develop specialized lending programs tailored to the needs of industrial enterprises.

  • Promote Research and Development

Encouraging investments in research and development will drive innovation and technological advancements in industries. Public-private partnerships and grants can be used to support R&D initiatives.

  • Skilled Workforce Development

Investing in education and skill development programs is vital to bridge the skills gap and equip the workforce with the necessary expertise required by industries.

  • Stable and secure Business Environment

Ensuring political stability and consistent government policies will boost investor confidence and attract both domestic and foreign investments. Similarly, security concerns should be resolved immediately to attract more investors and industrialists in Pakistan.

  • Incentives and Tax Reforms

Providing incentives such as tax breaks, investment credits, and subsidies for industries in targeted sectors can stimulate industrial growth and attract more investors.

  • Encourage Public-Private Partnerships

Collaborations between the government and private sector can help in developing industrial zones, technology parks, and specialized clusters, fostering industrial development.

  • Foster Export-Oriented Industries

Focusing on export-oriented industries will not only generate foreign exchange but also increase the competitiveness of Pakistani products in the international market.

  • Promote Special Economic Zones (SEZs)

Establishing SEZs with favorable policies, infrastructure, and investor-friendly regulations can attract foreign investment and stimulate industrial growth. Under CPEC, 9 special economic zones establishment program has been given in Pakistan.

  • Encourage Entrepreneurship

There is a dire need to Support and nurture entrepreneurs by providing them with mentorship, training, and financial assistance to start and grow innovative businesses. Vocational training programs should be started by the government to improve industrial development in Pakistan.

  • Revamp Trade Policies

Reviewing and updating trade policies to support domestic industries, encourage import substitution, and enhance export competitiveness is necessary to bring industrial sector prosperity to Pakistan.

  • Economic Diversification: A dire need of the hour

Government must take steps to encourage the diversification of industries to reduce reliance on specific sectors and to create a balanced and resilient economy.

By implementing these strategies and creating an enabling environment for industrial growth, Pakistan can unlock its potential for economic development, job creation, and improved living standards for its people. This forward-looking approach will help Pakistan establish a strong industrial base and play a more significant role in the global economy.

Critical Analysis

Industrial productivity is imperative for the growth of the economy. In Pakistan, the industrial sector is facing various challenges, such as power shortages, administrative flaws, low productivity of industries, lack of innovation, etc. The government has to improve the infrastructure of the industries, regularize private and public partnerships, provide a skilled workforce, and provide uninterrupted electricity. To become a prosperous country, the government has to revamp the industrial sector. Although attempts have been made to prosper the industrial sector in Pakistan in the form of CPEC projects and national security policy, unfortunately, national disharmony, political turmoil, and economic crisis show grave repercussions and made the process of advanced industrialization, a slow and distant dream.


In conclusion, industrialization remains a pivotal force in shaping the modern economic landscape and uplifting the masses’ standard of living. While Pakistan possesses immense potential for industrial growth, it has faced significant hindrances that impede its progress. From energy shortages and infrastructure gaps to bureaucratic complexities and political instability, these challenges have cast shadows over the nation’s industrial aspirations.To surmount these obstacles and unlock the full potential of industrial development, Pakistan must embark on a collaborative and strategic journey. Addressing the energy crisis through sustainable solutions, investing in modern infrastructure, streamlining regulatory processes, and fostering political stability are crucial steps. Moreover, promoting research and development, skill enhancement, and public-private partnerships will fuel innovation and competitiveness.By formulating cohesive policies, offering incentives for investment, and nurturing a supportive ecosystem for entrepreneurs, Pakistan can create an environment conducive to industrial growth. Emphasizing sustainable practices and economic diversification will further strengthen the foundation of progress.Through collective efforts and visionary leadership, Pakistan can chart a new course toward industrial transformation, fostering economic prosperity, creating jobs, and elevating the quality of life for its people.

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CSS 2023 Solved Pakistan Affairs

2- Write a detailed and systematic analysis of the charismatic leadership of Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad All Jinnah. The leader of Indian Muslims during the crisis-ridden decade of 1937-47.
3-Having the largest irrigation system in the world, the land of the sub-continent served as the main food supply basket for the British power for more than a century, but now Pakistan has to import food commodities. Discuss in detail the causes of this agricultural decline.
4-Industrialization is the backbone of the modem economic system and uplifts the standard of living of the masses. Elaborate causes for the hindrance of industrial development in Pakistan.
5-The evolution of the democratic system has always remained a dilemma in Pakistan, even after passing more than seven decades of its existence democracy could not get its roots. Discuss in detail.
6-Joining the US led Coalition in the War against Terrorism has Many Short and Long Term Repercussions for Pakistan. Discuss.
7-Elaborate. Pakistan is located on the cross-road of South Asia. Explain its geo-strategic/political importance and challenges.
8-Pakistan is considered to be the fifth-largest youth bulge country in the world. Given this youth bulge. Deliberate on ways forward for Sustainable Economic Development in Pakistan.

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