Write a Detailed and Systematic Analysis of the Charismatic Leadership of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the Leader of Indian Muslims during the Crisis Ridden Decade of 1937-47

Write a Detailed and Systematic Analysis of the Charismatic Leadership of Quaid-E-Azam Mohammad All Jinnah. The Leader of Indian Muslims During the Crisis-Ridden Decade of 1937

CSS Solved Pakistan Affairs Past Papers | Write a Detailed and Systematic Analysis of the Charismatic Leadership of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the Leader of Indian Muslims during the Crisis Ridden Decade of 1937-47

The following question of CSS Pakistan Affairs 2023 is solved by Nishat Baloch under the supervision of Miss Nirmal Hasni. She learnt how to attempt 20 marks question and essay writing from Sir Syed Kazim Ali, Pakistan’s best CSS and PMS English essay and precis teacher with the highest success rate of his students. This solved past paper question is attempted on the pattern taught by Sir to his students, scoring the highest marks in compulsory and optional subjects for years, and uploaded to help aspirants understand how to crack a topic or question, how to write relevantly, what coherence is, and how to include and connect ideas, opinions, and suggestions to score the maximum.

Question Breakdown

The following answer sheds light on the charismatic leadership of Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah and what contributions he made during the crisis ridden decade of 1937 to 1947. His policies of non-alignment in foreign policy and ideology of separate homeland for Muslims paved the way for the formation of Pakistan.


1- Introduction

2- Quaid’s personality and contributions during the crisis ridden decade of 1937-47

3- Jinnah and his charismatic leadership

4- Principles of Jinnah’s vision

  • ✓ Foreign policy and peaceful co-existence
  • ✓ Issue of migrants
  • ✓ OIC and Islamic solidarity

5- His politics as a constitutionalist

6- Conclusion

Answer to the Question


Quaid-e-Azam is a prominent figure in the history of subcontinent. His charismatic personality has played a vital role in the creation of Pakistan and helped the Muslim community to rise against the atrocities of British and Hindus. His charismatic personalities were full of powerful words and actions that inspired and attracted people, both within and outside the Muslim community. Jinnah had exceptional oratory skills and leadership qualities. He helped in the mobilization of the Muslim community through the establishment of Muslim League. Despite facing numerous challenges and setbacks, he remained steadfast in his pursuit of the creation of Pakistan. His presence and commitment to his cause inspired people and instilled confidence in his leadership.

Quaid’s personality and contributions during the crisis ridden decade of 1937-47

Quaid started his career as a barrister and then as a parliamentarian. These two professions made him turn into a man of principles and constitution.  His role as a lawyer is briefly discussed in Jinnah: The Lawyer (1976) by Nisar Ahmad Pannu. This account analyzed his ability to work under the British Constitution in tough circumstances. This aspect of his life is rightly pointed out in Jinnah: As a Parliamentarian (2016) by Mohammad Jaffar. In this compilation, he collected valuable documents and information about his unique role in the Indian Parliament. This work provides an understanding of his role in law-making and his ability to understand situational factors of British Colonialism.

The most important work on this specific topic was The Charismatic Leader: Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah and the Creation of Pakistan (2008). In this work, Prof. Sikander Hayat discusses the prominent traits of his personality. He applied the theory of charisma to the leadership of Jinnah and proved that it was his charismatic leadership which achieved the goal of Pakistan. Quaid acted as the first Governor-General of Pakistan and paved the way to achieve a separate homeland for the Muslims. It was because of his leadership, as per the work of Muhammad Iqbal Chawla in Wavell and the Dying Days of the Raj, that gave momentum to the final stages of the Pakistan Movement.

Jinnah and his Charismatic Leadership

Jinnah was highly intelligent and possessed a deep understanding of the politics and related-constitutional matters. His ability to think critically and strategic planning saved Muslims from falling prey to nefarious designs of the Indian National Congress. He led by example and projected an image of integrity and honesty. His charisma enabled him to command the loyalty and admiration of his followers, who saw him as a beacon of hope and the environment of their aspirations. He was known for his amicable sense of dressing and dignified demeanor.  His ability to forge alliances, build consensus, and make strategic decisions further enhanced his charismatic leadership.

‘Charismatic leaders were not born in a vacuum. They emerged when there were many leaders around but could not deliver’

Principles of Jinnah’s Vision

Jinnah was not only good at constitutional matters and politics but he was also the best architect of the foreign policy. As a governor-general, he preferred to forge alliances with other countries to maintain an international recognition. He adopted the policy of non-alignment and neutrality. He believed in maintaining a non-aligned and neutral stance to avoid entanglement in power block and cold war politics. This strategy aimed to protect Pakistan’s sovereignty and promote its freedom in decision-making.

Furthermore, he believed in peaceful co-existence and tried to maintain relations with other countries at best. He also advocated implementing the tools of diplomacy to solve a major issue. Jinnah was also an arch supporter of Islamic solidarity. He sought to foster solidarity among Muslim nations especially those in the region based on shared religious and cultural values.

 His basic aim was to protect Pakistan’s territorial integrity and national interest by establishing cordial relations with neighboring countries and addressing border disputes. He was not interested in indulging a newly born state into a war.

After the partition of India, he had to face a challenging situation in the shape of migrants. His foreign policy also included the addition of migrants coming from India to settle in Pakistan. His foreign policy had to address this humanitarian crisis while simultaneously focusing on nation-building and stabilizing the country.

After independence, he had to face the challenge of the Kashmir issue. His diplomatic efforts led to the recognition of Pakistan by other countries such as the US, UK and Soviet. Being a member of the United Nations, his perseverance beards off when Pakistan became a member of the United Nations in 1947, granting the country a platform to voice its concerns and contribute to global affairs.

Being an advocate of the Muslim community, he believed in the unity of the Islamic world and the solidarity of the Muslim Ummah. He advocated for the creation of an organization representing the interest of the Muslim nations, which later materialized as an Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC).

His Politics as a Constitutionalist

He is widely known for the creator of a new country Pakistan by overcoming all political hurdles that came in way because of Hindus and Britons. He led the All-India Muslim League, by which Quaid was able to achieve separate electorate for Muslims. He firmly believed in the rule of law and the importance of the constitutional framework for governance.  Jinnah always uplifted basic human rights and envisioned a democratic state with a string constitution.

During the process of partition and the creation of Pakistan, he played a significant role in formulating the objectives and principles of the new state. He ensured protection of religious freedoms and protected individual rights. In a speech to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan on August 11, 1947, he outlined his vision for the country’s future and the role of the Constitution.  He stressed the importance of equality, tolerance and social justice as foundational principles that should be in shrined in the constitution.

However, his vision and principles continue to influence the constitutional development of Pakistan. They can be considered a constitutionalist due to his unwavering belief in the rule of law, his advocacy for democratic and inclusive Pakistan and his efforts in shaping the constitutional framework for the country. He strived to establish a constitution that would protect the rights, and during the Freedom Movement of Pakistan, he promoted the Two-Nation Theory on the basis of his constitutional standing.

“Almost all of his contemporaries in politics saw him as “a man of high integrity, principles, sincerity, honesty, incorruptibility and honor”

Sikandar Hayat


Quaid-e-Azam’s personality and his leadership skills influenced the crisis decade of 1937 till 1947. He was the of the view that individual rights must be protected and there should be a strong constitution backing the state. All the above-mentioned points are all because of the charismatic personality of Quaid that he was able to give a new homeland to Muslims, defeating all the odds.

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CSS 2023 Solved Pakistan Affairs

2- Write a detailed and systematic analysis of the charismatic leadership of Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad All Jinnah. The leader of Indian Muslims during the crisis-ridden decade of 1937-47.
3-Having the largest irrigation system in the world, the land of the sub-continent served as the main food supply basket for the British power for more than a century, but now Pakistan has to import food commodities. Discuss in detail the causes of this agricultural decline.
4-Industrialization is the backbone of the modem economic system and uplifts the standard of living of the masses. Elaborate causes for the hindrance of industrial development in Pakistan.
5-The evolution of the democratic system has always remained a dilemma in Pakistan, even after passing more than seven decades of its existence democracy could not get its roots. Discuss in detail.
6-Joining the US led Coalition in the War against Terrorism has Many Short and Long Term Repercussions for Pakistan. Discuss.
7-Elaborate. Pakistan is located on the cross-road of South Asia. Explain its geo-strategic/political importance and challenges.
8-Pakistan is considered to be the fifth-largest youth bulge country in the world. Given this youth bulge. Deliberate on ways forward for Sustainable Economic Development in Pakistan.

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