Since the inception of Pakistan as an independent country, numerous education policies have been developed but have not stood productive towards ensuring hundred per cent enrollment. Describe the systemic flaws and other restraining forces behind them

Since the inception of Pakistan as an independent country, numerous education policies have been developed but have not stood productive towards ensuring hundred per cent enrollment. Describe the systemic flaws and other restraining forces behind them

CSS Solved Sociology Past Papers | Since the inception of Pakistan as an independent country, numerous education policies have been developed but have not stood productive towards ensuring hundred per cent enrollment. Describe the systemic flaws and other restraining forces behind them

The following question of Sociology is attempted on the same pattern, taught by Sir to his students, scoring the highest marks in compulsory subjects for years. This solved past paper question is uploaded to help aspirants understand how to crack a topic or question, how to write relevantly, what coherence is, and how to include and connect ideas, opinions, and suggestions to score the maximum.

Question Breakdown

The question demands the enunciation of systemic flaws and restraining agents behind the fragmented education system in Pakistan that is fueling the engine of the nation within a nation.


1- Introduction

2- Education system in Pakistan: A pilot survey

3- Pitfalls in the education system of Pakistan

4- Time to revoke the  circumstantial failure

5- Conclusion

Answer to the question


Pakistan, since its inception as an independent country, has faced numerous challenges in the field of education, particularly in terms of ensuring universal enrollment. Despite the development of several education policies over the years, the country has not been able to achieve the desired outcomes. There are several systemic flaws and other restraining forces that have contributed to this issue. One of the major flaws is the inadequate allocation of funds towards education due to which schools lack basic infrastructure and facilities and teachers are underpaid and overworked leading to a decline in the quality of education. Another significant issue is the lack of political will and commitment to prioritize education on the accord of corruption and inefficiency. Along with these issues, female education is also among the restraints in the education system in Pakistan. The education system in Pakistan requires a deliberate and accommodative approach to overcome the low literacy rate.

The education system in Pakistan: A pilot survey:

A general overview of the education system in Pakistan proclaims primary, middle, high school and tertiary education. The primary and middle level covers grades one through eight, while high school education covers grades nine through twelve. Tertiary education includes universities, colleges and vocational institutes.

Pakistan has a fragmented education system which implicates different education for different sections of society:

1 Public education system encompasses government schools and colleges where the state provides education to individuals equivocally.

2- Private education system depicts the opulence factor where quality education is provided to the students of schools, colleges and universities.

3- Madrassah education system imparts religious education along with shelter and food to the poor students

On behalf of the segmentation of education social stratification is undergoing unswerving damages. The education system in Pakistan faces several challenges such as inadequate infrastructure, lack of resources, low-quality education and a high dropout rate. To address these challenges, the government of Pakistan has developed several policies and initiatives aimed at improving the quality of education, promoting access to education and reducing the dropout rate already 22.8 million children are out of school.

A pilot survey was conducted in 2019  by the sustainable development policy institute (SDPI) to assess the current state of the education system in Pakistan. The survey covered various aspects of education such as infrastructure, quality of education, teacher training and access to education. The survey found that there were several challenges facing the education system in Pakistan. For example, there was a lack of basic infrastructure, such as electricity, water and sanitation facilities in many schools. the quality of education was also found to be low, with a lack of trained and qualified teachers, outdated teaching methods and a focus on learning rather than critical thinking and problem-solving. Furthermore, The survey found that access to education was a significant challenge, particularly for girls and children from disadvantaged backgrounds. There was also a high school dropout rate, with many children leaving school due to financial constraints, lack of interest or pressure to work and support families.

Pitfalls in the education system of Pakistan:

With a literacy rate of 66%, Pakistan lags in education in the South Asia region where India stands at 96%, Bangladesh88.4% and Malaysia at 96.2%. Meanwhile, daunting challenges are ahead which are essential to be eradicated immediately for the establishment of a progressive and prosperous Pakistan. Some of the pitfalls  that  the education system has to come across are as follows:

  • 1- Inadequate funding:

For decades Pakistan’s economy is under the burden of loans and stagflation which has had a severe impact on the education sector as it couldn’t attain the aim of acknowledgement and has failed to meet the constitutional requirement of allocating 4% of GDP towards education instead has remained stagnant at 2% of budget. As a s result the public education system has failed to provide quality education to individuals. Insufficient resources for schools and teachers have distorted public schools and colleges. people prefer private institutions on the accord of these depravities. Similarly, low salaries, overworked teachers and outdated pedagogical tactics are unable to cultivate a productive nation.

  • 2- Lack of political will and commitment:

Currently, the whole country is under the clench of political chaos and this sequel is in a continuum since the inception of Pakistan education a neglected issue. This scenario can be defined by the Rhetoric versus Action equation where false claims and promises are made but no political will to accommodate people with education and hence the Pakistani youth lags in every field, especially in the field of research and innovation. Nowadays, person-centric politics has become the medium of education while skilled-based education and quality education is declining because education was never prioritised despite being a top priority in speeches. The whole education system is a dummy system that bolsters the elite class and in turn, is run by the elites and thus the rich gets quality education and finds good opportunities while the poor and middle class serves the elite class after the whole process of scrutinizing.

  • 3- Corruption and Inefficiency:

Corruption has become a trade mark of Pakistan due to its rapid perpetuation. The case of education scams and mismanagement of education funds has emerged as a pathetic hazard for the growth of insights in the country. The dearth of transparency and accountability in the education system has promoted the business of Ghost schools and Ghost staff get paid the tax money which further devastates the education sector. At the same time, the opulent private institutes accumulate wealth by providing expensive education yet the cream of society gets the successful fruition by reaching the good opportunities.

  • 4- Gender Disparity and Social Inequality:

Gender discrimination is a part and parcel of Pakistani culture on the pretext of religious education which gives limited access to education for girls, especially in rural areas typically in the lower middle class. meanwhile, there exist cultural and societal norms that discourage girls from attending school.59% of the girl child are out of school whereas 21% of boys are. Early marriages as Pakistan has a large proportion of child brides limit educational and employment opportunities. Likewise, an environment of harassment at home, workplace and educational institutes is architected around the female population depriving a large chunk of the population of illiterate and thus extending the misery of the education system in Pakistan.

  • 5- Poverty:

On the accord of inflation and a high rise in poverty, a ratio has been witnessed that compels the poor population to work to meet the ends. Bonded labour and child labour in this regard is the mechanism operated by the feudal lords to keep away the poor population away from insights and education. A tarp is laid to control the lives of the vulnerable section in rural areas that automatically restrains the deserving population away from education. Families cannot afford the costs of education or child labour doesn’t get the time to equip themselves with education as they have to work instead of going to school.

  • 6- Outdated Pedagogical Techniques and Curriculum:

The education system of Pakistan focuses on rote learning instead of critical thinking and problem-solving. The curriculum does not align with the changing needs of the workforce. Teachers are not trained to accommodate the needs of students which propagates a communication gap between teacher and student. similarly, outdated infrastructure is utilized that is unable to generate innovative ideas and boost the cognition of students.

  • 7- Single national curriculum policy(SNC): a Boone or Bane for Pakistan:

The single national curriculum (SNC) policy in Pakistan is a contentious issue and opinions about its potential impact are divided. Some people see the SNS as a boone for Pakistan that encompasses the quick fix of ambiguities in the education system of Pakistan while others view it as a bane and a martial law for the education sector.

SNC as a Boone for Pakistan:

  1. Standardized curriculum: The SNC aims to provide a standardized curriculum across the country, which can ensure that all students receive the same quality of education regardlessof their location or socioeconomic background. This can lead to a more equitable education system.
  2. Reduces disparities: The SNC aims to reduce disparities in education by eliminating the existing divide between public and private schools and by promoting equal opportunities for students from all backgrounds.
  3. Improved quality of education: The SNC seeks to modernize the curriculum, Promote critical thinking and creativity and incorporate technology into the classroom which can improve the quality of education and prepare students for the modern workforce.

SNC as a Bane for Pakistan:

  1. Centralization of power: The SNC centralizes power in the hands of the federal government, which can limit the autonomy of provincial governments and educational institutions. This can lead to a one-size-fits-all approach that may not be suitable for all regions of Pakistan.
  2. Limited diversity: The SNC directs the promotion of a uniform curriculum, which can limit the diversity of educational experiences available to students. This may lead to a lack of exposure to different ideas and perspectives, which can hinder critical thinking and creativity.
  3. Religious bias: The SNC policy has been criticized for promoting a religious bias by incorporating Islamic studies into the curriculum and limiting the exposure of students to other religions and cultures. This can lead to a narrow worldview and a lack of understanding and respect for diversity.

Time to revoke the circumstantial failure:

Revoking the education flaws in Pakistan is a complex and challenging task that will require sustained effort over a long period. It will involve addressing a wide range of issues including inadequate funding, corruption and inefficiency gender disparity and social inequality, poverty and outdated teaching methods and curriculum.

  1. The first step towards revoking the education flaws in Pakistan is to increase the allocation of funds towards education and ensure that these funds are utilized effectively and efficiently. This will require a commitment from the government to prioritise education and hold educational institutions accountable for the proper use of funds.
  2. Another critical step is to address the gender disparity and social inequality in education. This can be achieved by increasing access to education for girls, particularly in rural areas and promoting awareness of the importance of education among parents and communities.
  3. Efforts should also be made to improve the quality of education by modernizing the curriculum and teaching methods. This can be achieved by introducing innovative teaching techniques such as interactive learning and project-based learning and incorporating technology into the classroom
  4. Reducing poverty is also a critical factor in improving education in Pakistan .this can be achieved by creating employment opportunities and providing social safety nets for vulnerable communities.

However, revoking the educational flaws in Pakistan is not an overnight process. It will require a concerted effort from all stakeholders including the government, civil society and international organizations and a  sustained investment in education over the long term. With a commitment to education, Pakistan can create a more equitable and prosperous future for its citizens.


The idea of the matter is that Pakistan has faced numerous challenges in achieving universal enrollment despite the development of several educational policies over several decades. The dearth of allocation of funds towards education, corruption, gender discrimination and social inequities are some of the flaws that restrain the ambition of education in Pakistan. Addressing these challenges will need a multidimensional approach including increasing the allocation of funds towards education, improving the governance and accountability mechanism, addressing cultural and societal norms that hinder access to education and promoting gender equality and social inclusion. By overhauling these challenges, Pakistan can ensure that all children regardless of their gender or social status have access to quality education which is crucial for the country’s development and progress.

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