Explain the different types of orientation and training. Describe strategies for retaining competent and high-performing employees.


CSS Solved Business Administration Past Papers | Explain the different types of orientation and training. Describe strategies for retaining competent and high-performing employees.

The following question is attempted by Miss Nimra Masood, the top scorer in CSS Business Administration papers. Moreover, the answer is written on the same pattern, taught by Sir to his students, scoring the highest marks in compulsory subjects for years. This solved past paper question is uploaded to help aspirants understand how to crack a topic or question, how to write relevantly, what coherence is, and how to include and connect ideas, opinions, and suggestions to score the maximum.

Topic Breakdown:
One pillar of management is the management of human resources. Orientation and training is part of managing human resources that enhances and polishes the skills of employees to gain maximum from them.
Topic: Training
: Human Resource Management


Staffing, training and management of employees is one of the crucial parts of organizational management. It not only affects performance in the short term but has far-reaching implications for the organization in the long run. Orientation and training are the pillars of staffing which lead the organization towards its goals and, ultimately, mission. Another critical step in managing staff is their satisfaction and performance. Once an organization has invested in its employees, their preference is to retain all competent and high-performing employees. Surprisingly, it not only aids in an organization’s performance but also is a useful tool to compete with competitors. Therefore, training and retention of employees is crucial for the organization in the long term.


Definition of Orientation:

“Introducing a new employee to his or her job and the organization”

Purpose of Orientation:

Orientation helps new employees in the following ways:

  • Ensuring that employees feel at ease in a new environment.
  • Understanding the organization: its culture, rules, processes and other factors.
  • Facilitates in understanding its job description, specifications and procedures involved in achieving the goals.
  • It is the first step in the socialization process.

Types of Orientation:

There are two main types of orientations, one that focuses on the individual level while the other focuses on the general organizational environment and mission.

  • Work unit orientation:

The first type of orientation focuses on the individual itself. Its aim is to help employees understand what is expected of them in the organization and how its tasks would contribute towards overall organizational performance. Furthermore, such orientation also involves an introduction to the rest of the staff, thus, the start of the socialization process. This orientation is of utmost importance to give new employees a sense of belongingness and reduce stress.

  • Organization orientation:

The second type of orientation helps the new employee know about the company’s goals, history, philosophy, procedures and rules. It should also include relevant HR policies and including a tour of the facilities. Therefore, such orientation has a much broader scope and purpose. The core agenda of this orientation is to align the individual goals and actions with that of the organization to achieve a win-win situation for both the employee and the organization.


Definition of training:

“Training is a planned effort by a company to facilitate the learning of employees”.


“The heart of a continuous effort designed to improve employee competency and organizational performance”.

Purpose of training:

  • Increase employees’ knowledge of foreign competitors and cultures.
  • Help ensure that employees have the basic skills to work with new technology.
  • Help employees understand how to work effectively in teams to contribute to product and service quality.
  • Ensure that the company’s culture emphasizes innovation, creativity, and learning.
  • Ensure employment security by providing new ways for employees to contribute to the company when their jobs change, their interests change, or their skills become obsolete.
  • Prepare employees to accept and work more effectively with each other, particularly with minorities and women.

Types of Training:

There are two main types of training: general and specific; however, they can further be classified into several types according to individual or organizational needs.

  • General:

This type of training focuses on individual needs that will assist in handling daily routine matters such as communication skills, supervisory skills, customer service, technology skills and knowledge etc. in short such skills help in building a better image for the organization and moving the customer towards brand loyalty.

  • Specific:

The second type of training focuses specifically on certain weaknesses that can help improve the organizational performance or environment. In today’s globalized world, challenges such as sexual harassment, work ethics and cultural barriers have become a stumbling blocks; thus, specific training can help a great deal in overcoming these challenges. In addition, such training can assist in improving creative skills, leadership qualities and team building.

Strategies for retaining competent and high-performing employees:

Once an organization has invested significant amount in recruiting, selecting, orienting, and training employees, it wants to retain its competent and high-performing employees. Two vital strategies that play a role in this area are managing employee performance and developing an appropriate compensation and benefits program.

  • Managing Employee Performance:

Employees are an integral part of every organization. It is human resources that make, implement and deliver policies and strategies of every organization. Performance appraisal is about giving employees feedback about their performance. Performance appraisal helps identify loopholes and achievements in the performances of individuals. There are many ways in which performance appraisal is done.

Importance of Performance Appraisal

  1. It ensures that all employees are judged on the same criteria on the same method of measurement
  2. It is important to identify areas where training is needed.
  3. It assists in making the correct placement of workers
  4. Apprises employees of their performance and expected results so that they could bridge the gap.
  5. It provides a review and assessment of temporary or contractual employees for permanent hiring
  6. It eliminates personal biasness and gives insight into the employee.
  7. It assists in developing the reward and compensation system according to employee performance, especially for efficient employees.
  • Compensation and benefit

Compensation and benefit can help attract and retain competent and talented individuals who help the organization accomplish its mission and goals. In addition, an organization’s compensation system has been shown to have an impact on its strategic performance. Managers must develop a compensation system that reflects the changing nature of work and the workplace in order to keep people motivated. Organizational compensation can include many different types of rewards and benefits, such as base wages and salaries, wage and salary add-ons, incentive payments, and other benefits and services. Nonetheless, apart from traditional compensation strategies, managers may adopt some unconventional means.

  1. Skill-based pay: A pay system that rewards employees for the job skills they can demonstrate.
  2. Variable pay: A pay system in which an individual’s compensation is contingent on performance.
  3. Non-monetary benefits: flexible working hours, special positions or status, freedom in decision making and other privileges can also help a great deal in retaining employees.


Training is an essential part of improving not only the employee’s individual performance but the performance of the organization as a whole. Therefore, orientation and training are critical for almost every organization; however, an organization can only reap benefits if it manages to retain competent staff. To conclude, there are several ways of orientation and training to choose from depending on the requirement of both the employee and the organization.

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