CSS Solved Criminology Past Papers | Differentiate between crime, deviance, sin and vice. Discuss that crime is one of the major social problems of Pakistani society.
The following question of Criminology is attempted on the same pattern, taught by Sir to his students, scoring the highest marks in compulsory subjects for years. This solved past paper question is uploaded to help aspirants understand how to crack a topic or question, how to write relevantly, what coherence is, and how to include and connect ideas, opinions, and suggestions to score the maximum.
2-What is Crime?
- ✓Defining Crime
- ✓Example of Crime
- ✓Way to control
3-What is Deviance?
- ✓Defining Deviance
- ✓Example of Deviance
- ✓Way to control
4-What is Sin?
- ✓Defining Sin
- ✓Example of Sin
- ✓Way to control
5-Table of Differences
6-Crime as a Social Problem
- ✓Brings a culture of poverty when people lose their assets and properties
- ✓crimes because of mass urbanization and unemployment
- ✓Sense of belongingness and mutual cooperation is diminishing in society because of crimes
- ✓Prostitution and rape are becoming very common in the society
7-Applying Conflict perspective: How crime is better for social changes in society
8-Applying Strain Theory: How a normal person goes towards crime, sin, deviance and vice
Answer to the Question
The core purpose of law and enforcement agencies is to create peace in society. They make sure that every single person follows the law and does not disturb the balance of society. However, crime is known as any act that goes against the law of the state. Breaching that law leads a person towards punishment. It is done through the proper formal ways of law and enforcement agencies. Similarly, sin is any act that is done against religious bindings. A person breaching any limit that is placed by the sacred force. Doing sin cannot lead a person to the correction institute. However, it can be sanctioned through the wrath of God. Meanwhile, deviance is any act that goes against the norms of society. People disrespecting elders in society can be considered deviant. They breached the normal norms of society. Deviant behaviour is always controlled through informal ways of social control. Most of the time, family and peer groups of the person make sure that person does not go towards deviant behaviour. Similarly, vice is any immoral act done by a person. It can be behind closed doors. It may not harm the peace of society, but it can be a reason for the person’s own guilt. Crime is a major social problem in society. The social problem is a condition that at least some people in a community view as being undesirable. Crime can be a social issue in society. Street crime is a major social issue of society. In present times, drug selling and rape culture are becoming social in Pakistani society. From a broader perspective, crime in a society brings a change in it. It helps law and enforcement agencies to make new laws for society.
“Poverty is the parent of Revolution and Crime. “Aristotle
What is Crime?
- Defining Crime:
Anything that goes against the law of the state and brings punishment as a result is known as a crime. States always decide few sanctions against particular acts. Just in case someone breaches that law. He will be liable to be accountable.
- Example of the Crime:
Murder is a Crime in Pakistan.
- Way to control:
Section 302 of the Pakistan penal code imposes death punishment in case a person murders someone else.
What is Sin?
- Defining Sin:
Anything that goes against the teachings of the religion is a sin. Someone breaching sacred boundaries commits sin. In the act of sin, there is no law and enforcement agency which will make a person accountable for that act. However, there is a system of accountability on the day of the judgment for the person who commits sin.
- Example of the sin:
Breaking promises, telling someone lies, and backbiting is a sins in Islam.
- Way to control:
Elders in the Family informally can scold a person. When he will do sin.
What is vice?
- Defining Vice:
Vice is an immoral act committed by a person. It is something that may not cause harm to society or brings punishment. But, it can be a reason behind guilt in a person. People can commit vices behind closed doors. However, no state can question them about their acts.
- Example of Vice:
Prostitution and using drugs behind closed doors.
- Way to control:
Society informally labels such persons with bad tags to make them feel guilty over their acts.
What is Deviance?
- Defining Deviance:
Deviance is any act against the norm of society. When someone breaks the norms of the culture, he deviates from the normal path provided by society. Every crime is deviant behaviour. However, a deviant person can be in a positive way to called a revolutionary person. In some societies, it can be deviant to be different from others.
- Example of deviance:
Self-harming and illegal hunting
- Way to control:
Deterrence through the law and enforcement agencies.
“Every little thing is crime in a society if it brings a minor feel of dissatisfaction in your soul.Larry Siegel Book: Criminology
Does not matter then even if you spoke rude to the next.
Table of Differences between Sin, Crime and Vice
|Act against law
|Act against religion
|Immoral act of a person
|Breaking the norms of society
|Punished by the state
|Punished by the God
|Negative labels from society
|Punished by the Family
|Disturbs the balance of society
|Disturbs own soul
|brings questions to the integrity
|Alienated from the group
|Formal social control
|Informal social control
|Informal social control applies to a person
|Example: Breaking promise
|Example: Eating with the left hand
How Crime is a Social Problem?
Crime is one of the social problems of society. The reason crime is a social problem is that it always disturbs the natural fabric of society. It brings new evils and breaks the laws of the state. Every single crime affects someone in some way. People, most of the time, become poor. They face losses in their businesses because of fraud and corruption. Taking the cause of Karachi. There are many street crimes common in this city. Every single citizen stays in fear of being robbed, and they are frustrated with going out openly or even sitting in public places outside their houses.
- Brings a culture of poverty when people lose their assets and properties
Every other day people are being robbed easily. It is easy for criminals to use technology and powerful tools to transfer money from their banks. Law and enforcement agencies find troubles in tracking such activities and bring them in front of the laws. Meanwhile, people who are being robbed never get justice and are becoming poor. They are just losing their assets to those who do nothing except commit crimes.
- Increasing street crimes because of mass urbanization and unemployment
Most of the youth are unemployed in Pakistan. They get narrow opportunities to find a way to earn. To fulfil their basic needs, they are doing small street crimes. The major reason behind street crimes is mass urbanization. People are moving towards cities without proper planning, and they create unsafe livings in towns. This directly brings crimes, and it is continuously increasing the unsafe environment for the people in society.
- Sense of belongingness and mutual cooperation is diminishing in society because of crimes
Just because of the increase in crimes. Societies are losing their social bond. People are not cooperating with each other because of trust issues. It gets very difficult for the person to get genuine help from another person. In the past, people faced many issues of criminal activities because of helping and cooperating with each other. Nowadays, there is a culture of living own life, even in such urbanized cities in Pakistan.
- Prostitution and rape are becoming very common in society
Prostitution is prohibited in Islamic states. In legal obligations, it is a crime. However, being an easy source of money. It is becoming common. Similarly, there are many rape cases happening in society. Every other day there circulates news of rape in Pakistan. The issue lies in the structure of society. People are illiterate, and there is no culture of a friendly process to claim justice. Criminals can easily escape from the justice system.
“Recent case of Noor Mukhadam and zahir jaffar. How he sexually abused her and killed her still finding narrow escapes from the justice system “Article from the News
Applying conflict perspective: How crime being a social problem is better for social change in society.
According to the conflict perspective, crime being a social problem is better for society. Because it helps people to get aware of the issues, they build their domains to protect themselves. They earn and use technologies to protect their assets. People acquire education and know their rights and duties. Similarly, state and law enforcement agencies get different domains to build new laws. They keep on changing and developing their skills to meet modern problems with modern solutions. Therefore, any imbalance and conflict in society always bring change. It goes to the state of how it takes in a positive or a negative way to deal with it.
“Criminologists are the right people to bring such domains which can prevent happening of crime in future. Through calculating the present scenarios “Criminal civil society
Applying Strain Theory: How a normal person can be a reason behind the breaking of the law
According to the strain theory, people do not break laws normally. There is always a reason behind it. Society is divided into classes. There are people with few extra privileges, and when someone from the same society could not acquire those luxuries and benefits, he always develops a strain in his inner self to acquire that luxury by any means. Therefore, he will go for having it without worries about breaking the laws of the state.
Practical observation from the society
“People stopped at red signal waiting for it to turn green on the road. When anyone of them will break the signal with privilege of having government car or any other necessity will make others people to do the same and in a result few other normal cars will follow the same suite”
In a nutshell, crime is breaking the law, and the state always controls it in formal ways. Similarly, other practices like sin, vice and deviance are also part of an uncultured society. They are looked through informal ways to control. Most of the time, family and peer groups do that for the person. Despite these, crime is becoming a major social problem in society. Every crime leads towards the disturbance of the balance of society. It leads people towards poverty. Mass urbanization is increasing street crimes, and there is an unemployed youth bulge in society. Prostitution is increasing rapidly, and collectively all these issues are becoming social. They are the reason behind the disturbance of the normal fabric of society. However, crime can help society to change, and the state develops modern laws to tackle new crimes that can happen in future.
“Crime and bad lives are the measure of a state’s failure, all crime in the end is the crime of the community.”H. G. Wells
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