Critically Discuss the Conceptualized Energy’s Influence on World’s Geopolitics and its Distinctiveness of Global Energy Governance

Critically Discuss the Conceptualized Energy's Influence on World's Geopolitics and its Distinctiveness of Global Energy Governance

CSS Solved Current Affairs Past Papers | Critically Discuss the Conceptualized Energy’s Influence on World’s Geopolitics and its Distinctiveness of Global Energy Governance

The following question of Current Affairs is solved by Miss Nirmal Hasni, the best Current Affairs coach in Pakistan. Moreover, the question is attempted on the same pattern taught by Sir Syed Kazim Ali to his students, scoring the highest marks in compulsory subjects for years. This solved past paper question is uploaded to help aspirants understand how to crack a topic or question, how to write relevantly, what coherence is, and how to include and connect ideas, opinions, and suggestions to score the maximum.

Question Breakdown:

The following question sheds light on the ongoing global energy politics and how it is responsible for shaping the global governance. The answer focuses on the key players who are involved in the global energy politics as well as the effects on the ongoing Russia-Ukraine war which has defined the new dimensions. Moreover, it also talks about the nexus between climate change and the global energy geopolitics.


1- Introduction

2- The Geopolitics of Energy- From security to survival

3- Energy and Power Politics – Iran, Venezuela and Russia

  • ✓ A The case of Russia-Ukraine war and its impacts on global energy governance

4- The Geopolitics of Climate Change impacting the global energy politics

  • ✓ A The changing climate change and energy politics have direct nexus

5- Conclusion

Answer to the Question


Since the Industrial Revolution, the geopolitics of energy (the game of both supply and demand) has remained a key element for global energy needs. However, now it is the energy politics that will decide the survival of a country on this planet. The countries rich in oil and petroleum production as well as other forms of energy, now have the tendency to pose a serious threat to global energy governance and exploit their economic structure. One such example is of ongoing Russia-Ukraine crisis, which has hindered not just the economic growth with reference to energy in Europe but in other continents as well.

The Geopolitics of Energy – From Security to Survival

It dates back to the onset of the 2008 financial crisis when the rise in oil and gas demand increased the prices. This leads to producers such as Russia, Venezuela and Iran to put pressure on regional as well as international politics. However, with the recent slowdown in global demand, the centres in Europe and the United States it has rattled the oil prices.

In today’s world, the focus has more shifted to stabilising the usage of energy politics because of the recent change in global climate change. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has cited that the extensive usage of fossil fuels is the principal cause of the increased greenhouse gases. Nearly 2 billion people were affected by weather-related disasters in the 1990s and the ratio might increase in the upcoming years. The politics of the debate over scrambling to secure hydrocarbon resources versus reducing consumption through efficiency and use of alternatives is emerging as a new focal point in the geopolitics of energy.

Energy and Power Politics: Iran, Venezuela, and Russia

Russia, Iran and Venezuela will have the most prominent influence on today’s oil market. All three countries have used their immense influence to shape the global political energy future as well as protect their commercial interests. All have also tried to complicate the US interests in ongoing oil and gas supply and demand. Iran is developing a nuclear program despite UN Security Council resolutions 1696, 1737, and 1747 demanding that Iran suspend the enrichment of uranium and fully disclose the nature of its nuclear program.

Russia and China will block any serious sanctions, largely because of their commercial interests in Iran. China is also advancing and signing gas development projects with Iran as well just to keep Iran from Western-backed sanctions. While high oil revenues do not translate directly into market power and influence for Iran, they can embolden the country’s most militant leaders to assert themselves on the nuclear issue. This issue has largely disturbed the ties between the US and Iran, which were already at crossroads.

The other country, Venezuela, is also rivalling the countries that are highly dependent on oil and gas imports. Venezuela’s influence is mostly seen in Latin American countries.

Russia’s veto power in the UN Security Council; its unique position in supplying gas, electricity, and oil to Europe; and its control over one of the two largest nuclear arsenals in the world make it important to understand he ways in which energy has transformed Russia internally and the nature of its role in the international community.

The Case of the Russia-Ukraine War and its Impacts on Global Energy Governance

Russia took over Ukraine back in the year 2022 because of the fear of the expansion of NATO. This war has caused immense human loss on both sides. In addition to that, it has also caused global food supply chain disruption as well as oil and gas imports. Ukraine is the biggest export of Wheat in the world which has caused a food shortage after the initiation of the war. Both Russia and Ukraine export nearly one-third of the world’s wheat and barley, as well as more than 70 per cent of its sunflower oil and corn. Therefore, Russia is considered to be the breadbasket of the world as well as Ukraine, and it has disturbed the global food supply chains.

The Geopolitics of Climate Change impacting the global energy politics

The recent climate change because of the increased usage of fossil fuels is also impacting global governance. On the one hand, countries which are the major exporters of oil and gas are adamant to produce such commodities at higher rates and prices. At the same time, its effects on the environment are nearly doubling. The tussle between the energy producers and the ones dealing with the worse climate consequences is at crossroads. The superpower the US withdrew from one of the major climate agreements during the Trump era shows how insensitive countries have become towards the global climate impacts. The nexus of energy politics and of climate change are directly proportional and must be dealt with simultaneously.


The ongoing energy politics is affecting the world greatly. The actors, especially Russia, Ukraine, Europe, China, Iran and the US. The effects of such geopolitics could be observed in almost all parts of the world, ranging from the middle east to South Asia. Climate change is yet another factor that has become the victim of cruel energy politics by the state. However, active and prudent measures are required to shape global energy politics as well as the future governance system.

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CSS 2023 Solved Current Affairs

2Discuss historic Pakistan and Turkey bilateral relations beyond the areas of socio-economic and strategic realms. Explain its geopolitical ripple effects in the Himalayas, the Arabian Peninsula, and the South Caucasus.
3The UN climate summit (COP-27) in Sharm el Sheikh (Egypt) discussed Pakistan’s catastrophic summer floods exacerbated by climate change and the country is facing imminent threat of epidemics and other multi-dimensional dangers. Discuss the COP-27 roadmap to face the challenge of climate change and proposed measures for the reconstruction and rehabilitation of Pakistan.
4 Discuss the core causes of the Russian invasion of Ukraine which have considerable socio-economic, political, and strategic consequences on the world. Explain its devastating impact on Pakistan and its severe lesson for the country’s survival.
5Discuss the project idea China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) which is the great leap forward of economic regionalization in the globalized world. Explain its potential advantages, challenges, and future prospects.
6 November 15, 2022, will be a historic date in humanity’s history because at this date the Earth’s population reached the 8 billion mark. Critically discuss that the 21st century is a century of rapid population growth which has a devastating negative impact on the world. Explain the severe consequences of rapid population growth which will affect every country on earth.
7Critically discuss the conceptualized energy’s influence on world geopolitics and its distinctiveness of global energy governance.
8Critically discuss why Pakistan’s economic growth continues to be a “Balance-of-Payments” constraint which is one of the core causes to keep the foreign exchange reserve under pressure. Do you think that Pakistan’s export performance remains the most relevant long-term challenge to alleviate the balance-of-payments constraint for sustained economic growth and explain radical structural reforms to improve export performance?

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