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In an Islamic State, Islam is Considered a Complete Code of Life, Which Provides Guidelines for Proper Management of Political Power. Elaborate.

Islam a Complete Code of Life by Dr. Shumaila Parween

CSS Solved Political Science 2023 Past Paper | Islam a Complete Code of Life

The following question is attempted by Miss Dr. Shumaila Parween, the top scorer in CSS Political Science papers. Moreover, the answer is written on the same pattern, taught by Sir to his students, scoring the highest marks in compulsory subjects for years. This solved past paper question is uploaded to help aspirants understand how to crack a topic or question, how to write relevantly, what coherence is, and how to include and connect ideas, opinions, and suggestions to score the maximum.

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Question breakdown

In this question, the examiner inquired about Islamic guidelines for properly managing a state’s political power. You must first write an introduction, then summarise Islam as a code of life and ways to implement it, and finally, a conclusion.

                                                                       Outline

1-Introduction

2-Islam a complete code of life: A summary

3-Apprehending the expression “Political Power”

4-Islam-a comprehensive guide for proper management of political power- the nature of Islamic polity

  • Obligations and capacity of leadership
  • Verdicts on an Islamic society
  • Provision of rule of law and equality
  • An efficient economic system 
  • Perseverance of Public Rights 
  • Islamic Criminal Justice System

5-Critical Analysis

6-Ending remarks

                                                         Answer to the question

Introduction

Islam, undoubtedly, is a comprehensive charter of life, which dispenses an integrated view of human life where politics is not standoffish from religion. The religious life of believers advances side by side with politics, especially for the Muslims who are bonded to the administrative operations of an Islamic state. Islam has appointed people of noble character to the central positions of management and authority. Nonetheless, the rules and regulations of an Islamic polity firmly accord with the law of the Holy Quran and the Sunnah of the esteemed apostle, Muhammad (PBUH). The obligation to devise Islamic jurisprudence in an Islamic state is binding, serving the believers, defending religion, maintaining sovereignty, and supervising political authority. According to the decree of Allah in the Holy Quran, He owns the dominion of heaven and Earth. It is He Who bestows life and death and has thorough cognizance of all things. Hence, according to the Islamic concept of political power, the administrative head of state, offices of ministries, functions of government, judicial procedure, economic scheme, and criminal law and order of an Islamic state must abide by Shaira’s ruling, attaining the ultimate purpose of peace, prosperity, general good, justice, and transparency.  

Islam a complete code of life: A summary

Islam offers an all-comprehensive guide to human life, not leaving a single aspect untouched. Whether personal affairs, civil relations, societal matters, entrepreneur issues, or political activities, Islam bestows every human, department, and leader specific rights and obligations to efficiently run society while optimally securing goodness and prosperity. Moreover, Islam gives an episteme of knowledge for the sub-domains of these personal, societal, economic, and political affairs, meticulously understanding the requirements, demands, complications, and escapes and providing the excellent possible solution. Ultimately, Islam satisfies every aspect of life, imparting maximum goodness.

Apprehending the expression “Political Power

Political power is authority derived through legislative chambers of the state. It is an authority that attains its power through constitutional means, executes orders that affect the state’s affairs, forms legislative assembly, acts as head of state and head of public office, maintains policies through strategic coercion and judicial legislation, and has a say over legislative, administrative, economic, and societal branches. Moreover, as per political science, power is the social production that regulates and governs actors’ capacities, activities, beliefs, or behaviour. Hence, political power grants the affiliates of an administration the right to rule over citizens through coercion if essential while implying a duty for the inhabitants to submit to the government’s commands. Further, an Islamic political power enjoys the authority of the ruler and its ministries, legitimized by Islamic law, over every facet of human life and state matters, whether religious, social, economic, or political.

Islam-a comprehensive guide for proper management of political power- the nature of Islamic polity

  • Obligations and capacity of leadership

The administrative head of an Islamic government has a revered position that rules the Islamic territory and is deemed the epitome of piety, goodness, and wisdom. In addition, the political head of an Islamic polity takes its power from Islamic laws, executing the Islamic concept of government and administration and demanding complete submission of the masses before him. The political head and all member affiliated with the government are bound to Islamic values in their personal and state conduct. For instance, the Quran proclaims the vicegerency of man on Earth, stating that believers are the state’s temporal rulers and defenders of the faith. In addition, political power is the highest rank in serving the public, and there is no concept of dictatorship, absolute monarchy, aristocracy, or family politics. Correspondingly, a representative type of government or selective government could take their legitimacy through the Islamic system.  So, the head of state and other political authorities in an Islamic state are subservient to Allah; they are bound to execute Sharia’s concept of government and by no means exploit masses and resources for their gain.

  • Verdicts on an Islamic society 

The Islamic concept of state is a dichotomous scheme; it apportions responsibilities and rights to the administrative branch of the country and the general public. As per Sharia, the administration must obey the Islamic laws of consultation, justice, equality, transparency, accountability, meritocracy, and honesty to run an Islamic state while maintaining authority through Islamic values. As verification, the Holy Quran aptly states that “Not only that but the Apostle, while he is commanded to trust in Allah when he has determined to do a thing, is also recommended to consult even those who are hypocrites (Al-Quran 03: 159).” Additionally, in the Quran, believers are asked to uphold justice in the following manner, “O thy who believe, be steadfast for Allah, and be carriers of witness with justice!” [Quran, 5:8]”. For the proper management of political power, Islam demands the unquestioned obedience of the ruler as part of the obligations of the masses, as the ruler and his ministers are deemed to protect the life and property and fulfil the needs of people and are supposed to possess the ultimate righteousness in their character. 

  • Provision of rule of law and equality

Furthermore, Islam places duties on political leaders and believers, no matter the odds, to stand up against injustice and inequality. Leaders and commoners should not be neutral in conflict, injustice, and oppression to effectively manage political power. Therefore, the Quran mentions it in the following verse, “God guides impartiality and fair dealing…” [Quran, 16:90]. Additionally, Islam instructs us not to contravene the balance and to implement the rule of law, meritocracy, social welfare, and equality. In the same pursuit, the guidelines to abhor and repel nepotism, despotism, and favouritism demonstrate the Islamic administrative system’s vitality that measures people’s superiority on the scale of righteousness and not on social status, class privilege, and political affiliation. Thus, Islam, which has all-inclusive guidelines for human life, urges the state’s authorities not to make injustice a way of general conduct and to outcast the evils of injustice and social oppression at all costs.

  • An efficient economic system 

Similarly, as political power also takes its authority from the economic system, Islam provides a wholesome guideline. By introducing business instructions, familiarizing the zakat system, measuring profit margins, controlling market rates, and levying taxes, such as jizya, Islam efficiently controls the misuse of political authority by taking extra profit margins and exploiting the public. In addition, Islam levies certain economic parameters, mainly an annual system of zakat, zakat on a specific volume of property, on a particular quantity of silver and gold jewellery, and on a certain number of livestock, to ensure the circulation of wealth and consider the poor class of society, eventually, guiding the political leader about rights and roles of administration in managing economy.

  • Perseverance of Public Rights 

Moreover, the effective management of political authority is also achieved through distributing certain rights and duties to leadership and the public. As the legislature of each polity upholds rights and duties to its people, whether they are commoners or assume public office, Islam also bestows numerous rights and roles on the political head, his assembly, office holder, and masses, aiming at balancing the political authority. The religion of Allah is the best form of legislature on Earth, which avoids all kinds of transgressions, political power abuse, suppression of lower classes, minorities, and women, wealth inequality, and economic exploitation, with the ultimate purpose of maintaining polity at its best shape, securing the rights of everyone within the Islamic territory, halting the abuse of power and authority and controlling whims and personal agendas of political leaders. In consequence, Islam, as a complete code of life, defines the rights and obligations of every individual, either one affiliated with the government or a commoner, and generates essential guiding principles that are vital for a vigorous political authority.

  • Islamic criminal justice system

Allah decrees a comprehensive justice system for believers with the determination to build a sound society. As it is stated in the Holy Quran, “O thy who have faith, be obstinately stand up for justice, witnesses for Allah, even if it be antagonistic to yourselves or parents and kinship. Regardless one is wealthy or meagre, Allah is more praiseworthy of both.” [Quran, 4:135]. Besides, to ensure the best form of polity, the Islamic theories of incapacitation and penology, criminal practice, and the principle of legality guarantee the right of the person to individual sanctuary, provided that no felony or penalty can befall unless the behaviour in question is mention in the Islamic law. Ultimately, criminal justice, being the branch of politics, curtails the political victimization of an individual, unjust ruling, misuse of political authority, meagre law and order situation, and abuse of people’s lives and assets. Hence, a well-preserved criminal procedural code is vital for effective political management, which controls the influence of administrative branches and the illegal use of political authority.

Critical Diagnosis

Critically evaluating the above-stated account, Islam holistically contains directions to all political issues, along with all religious and societal affairs. By the same means, Islam has abundant managerial principles that can bring about political power aptly. Through the Sharia legislature, such as Islamic procedural agencies, obligations on the leader, senior officials, and public office holders, proper economic policies, public rights, and Sharia courts, Islam regulates political authority, neither allowing leadership nor high officials to exploit any subject of public nor providing self-authority over Islamic jurisdiction. Nonetheless, like the success of every polity depends on its reliance on its constitution, the accomplishment of an Islamic state and true political authority could only be achieved through earnestly submitting to Islamic laws.

Conclusion

Lastly, Islam has a solution to all temporal and spiritual affairs. The parameters of Islamic jurisdiction entirely cover all political aspects of an Islamic state, whether they are related to the justice department, meritocracy, public welfare, economic matters, or criminal division. Besides, by instructing a thoroughly formulated economic system and political dogma, introducing the judicial system and Islamic procedural courts, and serving the rights and duties of everyone within a state, Islam meticulously controls and regulates the political authority. As a result, neither political leader can transgress from the Sharia ruling nor implement any law or policy that harms the public or allows them to follow any personal agenda by abusing their power and authority. Thus, the claim of Islam as the comprehensive plan of life could be practically assured with the maximum chances of a state’s opulence. 

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