CSS 2018 Solved Pakistan Affairs Past Papers | There is a Crisis of National Integration in Pakistan since its creation. What Measures Do You Suggest for the Promotion of National Integration of Pakistan?
The following question of CSS Pakistan Affairs 2018 is solved by Sobia Sangrasi under the supervision of Miss Nirmal Hasni. She learnt how to attempt 20 marks question and essay writing from Sir Syed Kazim Ali, Pakistan’s best CSS and PMS English essay and precis teacher with the highest success rate of his students. This solved past paper question is attempted on the pattern taught by Sir to his students, scoring the highest marks in compulsory and optional subjects for years, and uploaded to help aspirants understand how to crack a topic or question, how to write relevantly, what coherence is, and how to include and connect ideas, opinions, and suggestions to score the maximum.
- ✓National integration, the force of uniting citizens of a nation regardless of caste, creed, ethnicity, and religion, is the cornerstone for the unsurpassable socio-political and socio-economic development of nations.
2- Current situation
3- Obstacles in the way of national integration since Inception
- ✓Leadership dilemma
- ✓Prevalent issue of governance
- ✓Ideological clashes
- ✓Ethno-lingual and cultural heterogeneity
- ✓Strong foothold of feudalism
- ✓Sectarianism and militancy
- ✓Alien involvement in some provinces
4- Measures to Strengthen National Integration in Pakistan
- ✓Charismatic leadership
- ✓Efficient governance system
- ✓The correct interpretation of the ideology of Pakistan
- ✓Promotion of unity among different ethnic sectors
- ✓Eradication of feudalism from societies
- ✓Removal of sectarianism from societies
- ✓Comprehensive policies to eradicate external threats
Answer to the Question
There is a Crisis of National Integration in Pakistan since its creation
National integration is one of the prime factors for achieving peace and stability in the nation, which ultimately marches a nation towards the road of incessant development. In fact, no nation can reach the zenith without paying dire heed towards national integration. Nonetheless, disintegration is the Achilles heel for a nation’s prosperity, leaving nations on the verge of extinction. In Pakistan, the challenges of national integration are as old as the history of the land of pure. The most pertinent illustration of this fact is the separation of East Pakistan in 971. Miserably, even after seventy-five years of independence, the nation still keeps turning a blind eye towards the element of national integration in its land, owing to a plethora of challenges, such as inept leadership, ideological clashes, and ethnocultural diversity. Having said that, all is not gloomy for Pakistan; some pragmatic measures, including sagacious leadership, good governance, and acceptance of ethnocultural heterogeneity, can march the country towards the never-ending road of development.
“We are now all Pakistanis – not Balochis, Pathans, Sindhis, Bengalis, Punjabis and so on – and as Pakistani we must feel, behave and act, and we should be proud to be known as Pakistanis and nothing else.”Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Currently, a plethora of issues prevailing in the land of purity have demolished the social fabric of the nation owing to aggravated national disintegration. The continuous debate for the creation of new provinces in the country is further aggravating the already fragile situation of unity. For illustration, growing threats for the separation of Sindh and Baluchistan province are evident in the ongoing worse situation. Further, the turmoil of linguistic differences and identity crises is rising with each passing day. It goes without saying that the devastating situation, if it persists for long, can, however, give birth to 5th generation warfare. As a result, taking pragmatic measures to unite the nation is the need of the hour. State personnel should immediately take concrete steps to exterminate the menace of disintegration.
There are a number of challenges responsible for the stagnancy of the national disintegration of Pakistan. To begin with, Pakistan’s quest for national integration is to remain elusive without sagacious leadership. After the demise of the father of the nation, none of the leaders have paid heed towards national unity. Ergo’s leadership dilemma has fuelled the fire of national disintegration in the country. Second, the prevailing issue of governance has wreaked havoc on the nation. The unequal distribution of resources, lack of accountability, nepotism, poverty, and unemployment have led to the erosion of the country’s social fabric by creating a burgeoning gap between the government and the public. For instance, according to the World Bank report, the latest value of political stability in Pakistan from 2021 is -1.67 points ( -2.5 weak; 2.5 strong ). Third, despite the fact that Pakistan emerged in the name of Islamic ideology, the demise of Jinnah in the early years left the ideology question ambiguous and unanswered to Islamists, secularists, and Muslim democrats. There still exists scepticism, whether it is an Islamic state or secular, modelled on Western norms. Ironically, Pakistan is suffering from an identity crisis. Despite the fact that Islam is the state’s religion, there are sectarian differences between various sects, like Sunni, Barelvi, and Shia Muslims. Such ideological clashes are dividing the nation along ethno-religious lines.
Fourth, Pakistan is a multi-ethnic, multi-lingual, and multi-cultural nation. The unacceptance of such diversity has led to the ethnic divide in the nation. It is feared that the cleavage may disintegrate the nation by spiralling feelings of marginalization and alienation, as is evident in the case of East Pakistan’s dismemberment in 1971. Also, the social fabric of the nation is fragmented around biradari and caste structures, especially in remote areas, eclipsing the importance of nationhood. For a case in point, the rising slogans of Punjabis, Sindhis, Balochis, and Pashtoons, instead of Pakistanis, have dismantled the national integration in the nation. Along with this, the prevalent hot debate on making new provinces in the nation is prominent evidence of this fact. Fifth, feudalism has eroded the entire system of Pakistan. Needless to say, the entire decision-making process of the country is dominated by the strong feudal culture. The very system hardly leaves a place for competitors to participate in political and economic affairs. Sixth, the war on terror has bred the ground for militancy in Pakistan. Sectarianism and militancy have originated in the past military regimes of General Zia-ul-Haq and General Pervaiz Musharaf, as both envisaged Afghanistan’s turmoil as an opportunity to facilitate themselves with the US assistance in multiple sectors. Last but not least, the involvement of India in Balochistan and KPK has proven to be the last nail in the coffin, disintegrating the nation from its roots. For illustration, it has resulted in the creation of hostile groups, such as the Baluchistan Liberation Army (BLA) and Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), for creating instability in the province and inciting them for separation.
“National integration does not mean erasing differences, but making those differences our strength.”Atal Bihari Vajpayee.
Having said that, there is still some light at the end of the tunnel for Pakistan. Some pragmatic measures implemented by policymakers can aid the nation in tasting the true essence of national integrity. At the outset, one of the foremost factors in achieving national integrity is sagacious political leadership. Charismatic leadership can integrate the diverse nation by promoting social justice, the rule of law, tolerance, and democratic pluralism. Political and religious leaders of the nation should stop the polarization of society for their vested interests and promote the notion of “unity in diversity”. Furthermore, good governance is the key determinant for promoting national integration. Competent institutions can ensure the provision of equal opportunities to all sectors of society, which will ultimately remove the menace of inequality and division. Authority should be equally divided between the centre and federating units. The government need to take prompt steps to provide quality education to every child in the nation. Thus, good governance has to be ensured if Pakistan desires to eradicate grievances of national disintegration at large.
“National integration is about respecting and accepting each other’s differences while working towards the same goal.”Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
Besides, the very purpose of creating a separate homeland was to establish and flourish a truly Islamic state. Government institutions need to understand that the Islamic state system is the gist of ideology. The formation of current policies should not only be based on contemporary requirements but also inculcate the country’s ideological basis. In addition, cultural, ethnic, and linguistic diversities are natural phenomena recognized as key determinants of integration to enrich and promote the national heritage. Despite segregating on the basis of diversities, all cultural and ethnic groups should intermix with their distinct identities and form one common integral culture. The government of Pakistan should take vital steps to recognize and promote such diversities to enrich the national heritage.
Moving further, it is high time to disband the concept of feudalism in the nation. There is a dire need to introduce a participatory and all-inclusive political system in Pakistan by exterminating favouritism and nepotism. The political system can only function well if freed from the influence of feudalists. It will enable the young and competitive minds to participate in the political process and enable the nation to prosper by leaps and bounds. In the same way, sectarianism and extremism need to be eliminated from their roots, as extremism has distorted the image of the country in international comity. Stabilizing the socio-economic and socio-political structure of society by comprehensive and effective policies can certainly eradicate the menace of sectarianism and extremism from the nation.
“National integration is not just about tolerance but embracing diversity and celebrating unity.”Abdul Kalam
Last but not least, taking advantage of political instability, neighbouring nations, especially India, have destabilized the provinces of Baluchistan and KPK. The activism of the Pashtun Tahafuz Movement (PTM) and slogans of separatism raised by Baloch insurgents, like the Baloch Liberation Army, are all sponsored by hostile states with the aim of destabilizing the country. In order to integrate Baluchistan with the federation, there is a dire need to preserve ethno-cultural identities and remove socio-economic inequalities. Although the government have launched various programs to give complete ownership to the people of Baluchistan, such as the Political Reconciliation Process, the 18th Amendment, Aghaz-e-Haqooq-e-Baluchistan, National Action Plan, and the National Finance Commission Award, the programs have remained inefficient in curbing the assumed fear of sub-nationalist group. It is believed that such initiatives are to only offer development opportunities to non-Baloch ethnics, like Punjabis and Sindhis, and the issues of Baloch ethnic groups would remain unaddressed. As a result, effective and comprehensive steps should be taken to address the problems of Baloch and other marginal communities and bring them to the back of prominence by promoting their cultural identities and providing equal opportunities in all facets of life.
Analyzing critically, in Pakistan, national integration arises only at the time of natural disasters, national dilemmas, and external threats, and as soon as the threat is dealt with, the internal contractions re-appear on the surface. Whether it be war in 1965 or a terrorist attack at Pulwama, the surge of nationalistic feelings among the people of Pakistan assisted the nation in curbing the menace threatening the very survival of the nation. The earthquake of 2005 and the terrorist attack on the Army Public School, Peshawar, on December 16, 2014, also united the people by and large. However, once the threats are dealt with, the internal contradiction of Pakistan in the form of political polarization and ethnic discord appears on the surface. Therefore, there is a need to form policies that give rise to sustainable national integration.
In a powerful diagnosis, it is collectivism, not individualism, that is the success formula of the developed nations. Diversity in culture and ethnicity strengthens the national heritage of a nation. A number of nations, such as the USA, Canada, and India, have a plurality of cultures and ethnicities; it is prudent leadership that unites the diverse population by providing a sense of participation and equal opportunities for the progress and development of nations. Satirically, Pakistan, since her birth, has been facing burgeoning challenges regarding national integration, including inefficient leadership, bad governance, feudalism, and sectarianism, keeping the nation aloof from enjoying the fruits of national integration. Supplementing and overpowering all the concerns Pakistan is facing today, some pragmatic measures, such as prudent leadership, efficient governance, eradication of sectarianism and feudalism, and correct ideological interpretation, if implied successfully, can get the nation out of this menace.
“National integration is the key to our progress as a nation, for only through unity can we achieve greatness.”Rajendra Prasad
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