PMS 2021 Solved Pakistan Affairs Past Papers | The Debacle of 1971 Was More the Result of Big Power’s Leaning Towards India Rather Than Our Domestic Failure. Discuss the Above Statement by Critically Evaluating Poland’s Resolution in the UN Security Council.
The following question of PMS Pakistan Affairs 2018 is solved by Nimra Fawad under the supervision of Miss Nirmal Hasni. She learnt how to attempt 20 marks question and essay writing from Sir Syed Kazim Ali, Pakistan’s best CSS and PMS English essay and precis teacher with the highest success rate of his students. This solved past paper question is attempted on the pattern taught by Sir to his students, scoring the highest marks in compulsory and optional subjects for years, and uploaded to help aspirants understand how to crack a topic or question, how to write relevantly, what coherence is, and how to include and connect ideas, opinions, and suggestions to score the maximum.
- ✓Although augmenting political and economic differences between East and West Pakistan became baleful domestic reasons for the separation of East Pakistan, the global powers like Russia, for their strategic interests, put a final nail in the coffin in the form of the Polish resolution by giving legitimacy to the disobedience movement of Bengalis and interference of India into the internal matters of Pakistan.
2- A bird’s eye of the grim predicament of East and West Pakistan in 1971
3- Dreadful domestic blunders brought the country to this critical juncture
- ✓Delay in the first meeting of the National Assembly after the general elections of 1970
- ✓Power imbalance between the eastern and western wings of the country
- ✓Economic Injustice to Bengalis
4- Astonishing role of the United Nations Security Council‘s Polish resolution in the fiasco of 1971
- ✓Imposing the adverse recommendations of the Soviet Union on Pakistan
- ✓Suggesting the country to accept its defect and withdrawal of troops from its western part
- ✓Promoting nasty settlements between India and Pakistan regarding West Pakistan and Jammu and Kashmir
- ✓legalizing the aggression and occupation of India
- ✓Making rugged efforts to halt the decision of the UN in the favour of Pakistan
5- Critical Analysis
Answer to the Question
Introduction of Debacle of 1971
The Polish resolution (1971) in the United Nations Security Council in the wake of peaceful settlements amidst escalating tensions between Pakistan and India exhibits an irrefutable reflection of how the global powers, in the pursuit of their strategic and economic interests, legitimize everything illegal against other countries. As an illustration, Russia has utilized the tool of diplomatic leverage against Pakistan, ensured the security alliance with India, and – above all – turned a blind eye to the violation of East Pakistan’s territorial sovereignty. As a result of it, Pakistan has experienced the tragic episode of the fall of Dhaka in its history. Undeniably, several bleak domestic realities existed behind the heartbreaking defeat, in which political disagreement on the first conference of the National Assembly after the elections of 1970 and inappropriate power and economic distribution between East and West Pakistan were involved. Yet, despite these internal factors, the government could secure its country from this disaster with the assistance of the international community, especially the global powers. However, the fact is far different from expectations. By using the platform of the UNSC, Russia, in the form of the Polish resolution, had longed for the imposition of its heinous recommendations on Pakistan in favour of India. Furthermore, the purpose of the resolution was to make sure of the ceasefire and withdrawal of Pakistani troops from its western borders. Similarly, it promoted the disgusting settlements between India and Pakistan relating to the matters of East Pakistan and Jammu and Kashmir. Surprisingly, by doing this, the UN would have legalized India’s occupation and oppression against Pakistan. On the whole, instead of securing Pakistan from breakage, the global leaders got ready to give an edge to India in the case of East Pakistan, but the Polish resolution did not pass.
A bird’s eye of the grim predicament of East and West Pakistan in 1971
In 1971, Pakistan was confronted with a severe crisis as the conflicts between East and West Pakistan widened. The catastrophic reasons behind this plight were the political, socioeconomic, and cultural disparities between them. Consequently, East Pakistanis started the liberation movement against the government. Therefore, to suppress this movement, the Searchlight Operation of the military was carried out in that region. Ironically, it was not proved to be advantageous for Pakistan since India had provided multi-front support to Bengalis against the government. For instance, the training of the Mukti Bahini’s soldiers took place in India. Hence, according to Archer Blood, an American career diplomat – who served as the last US Consul General to Dhaka – “Indian soil was made available for training camps, hospitals, and supply depots for the Mukti Bahini, and they had a haven to which they could retire for rest, food, medical supplies, and weapons.” Besides, India had announced a direct war with Pakistan at its western borders after cutting off the land routes between the eastern and western regions of Pakistan. In addition, the Indo – Soviet Treaty of Peace, Friendship, and Cooperation served as fuel to the fire by ensuring military and diplomatic assistance to India. In the end, after experiencing all of these heinous conspiracies, Pakistan had no option but to accept its defeat and to see its eastern part as an autonomous state, Bangladesh.
Dreadful domestic blunders brought the country to this critical juncture
Likewise, if the domestic blunders behind the fiasco of 1971 are taken into consideration, it is apparent that the delay in the first meeting of the National Assembly after the land-sliding victory of Bengalis in the general elections of 1970 became an immediate cause of reaching the ongoing tussle between the eastern and western wings of Pakistan at peak. Still, this event was not solely responsible for pushing the country to the brink of partition. Rather, from the very beginning of independence, Bengalis had suffered from the government’s ignorance towards their political, socioeconomic, and cultural identities. For instance, the dismissal of Maulvi Tameezuddin Khan from the constitutional assembly is the glaring evidence of the political disparity. In the same vein, the report of East Pakistan economists in 1970 also verified the fact of economic injustice to East Pakistan. As per the report, the total amount spent on East Pakistan was 36 per cent of the budget, while 64 per cent of it had been devoted to West Pakistan, which created a huge economic gap between them. As a consequence, violence had been begun at the eastern borders. At last, Bengalis, with the help of Indians, got separated from Pakistan and made their own state. In short, growing political and economic differences between East and West Pakistan became the daunting causes of the partition of Pakistan.
Astonishing role of the Poolish resolution of the United Nations in the context of the defeat of 1971
1- Imposing the adverse recommendations of the soviet union on Pakistan
The Polish resolution has clearly revealed how the Cold War players influenced the decision-making of international organizations to a great extent, particularly from East Pakistan’s perspective. As a case in point, Russia had a desire to pursue its geopolitical interests in the South Asia region, which were impossible without the support of India. Therefore, to please India, it allowed the proposal’s implementation in Pakistan despite knowing its illogical demands. Even except Russia, all other UN’s permanent members had vetoed or abstained from voting on this resolution. To sum up, the Polish resolution had the potential to fulfil Russia’s dream of creating hegemony in South Asia.
2- Suggesting to Pakistan to accept its defeat and withdraw its troops
Next to it, Poland’s proposal was based on the recommendation of a ceasefire between India and Pakistan. For the pursuance of this purpose, Pakistan would have to withdraw its troops from its western borders before the draw out of Indian Armed forces. Nevertheless, it was against the dignity of the country to leave its eastern citizens in the lurch for exploitation at the hands of its enemy. So, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, during this conference of the UNSC, claimed that the Polish resolution was worse than the Treaty of Versailles and that I would not be a party to the ignominious surrender of part of my country. Hence, the Polish resolution is considered a failed proposal because it could not save Pakistan’s eastern territory from the conspiracies of its enemy, India.
3- Emphasizing executing nasty settlements with India
Further, another chief agenda behind the Polish proposal to the UN was to confirm the abominable settlements between India and Pakistan. Surely, the proposal on this point underscored both the conundrums of East Pakistan and Jammu and Kashmir. Moreover, as per the Polish resolution, after the peaceful consensus, the ceasefire line in Jammu and Kashmir would have been supervised by the United Nations Military Observer Group in both India and Pakistan. Nonetheless, India was not ready to sit in with Pakistan on these issues except to satisfy its demands. As a result, Pakistan would have to dump its desires and agree on the constitutional sovereignty of East Pakistan. To sum up, the proposal negated the timely needs of Pakistan and preferred India’s malevolent lusts behind its heinous conspiracies.
4- Legalizing the oppression of India
Moving forward, the UNSC’s role in the shape of the Polish proposal was shortsighted as it legalized the aggression and conspiracies of India against Pakistan. In comparison, Article 48 of the UN’s charter itself promotes international peace and security. Likewise, the organization did not take notice of India breaching Pakistan’s territorial sovereignty. Instead, the proposal talked about the strategic settlements between both of them. In a word, the UN played a shocking role in the war of 1971 between Pakistan and India by giving illegitimate back to India in its suppression.
5 – Making rugged efforts to halt the decision of the un in favour of Pakistan
Lastly, Poland’s proposal is viewed as a rugged effort to suspend the UN’s decision in Pakistan’s favour. It is because, before this resolution, several other resolutions were rejected on the basis of political and strategic conflicts among the permanent members of the organization. The disapproval of the Anglo-French resolution before the Polish resolution can be quoted here as valid evidence. Indeed, these proposals could not bring both India and Pakistan on a single page. Thus, Poland’s resolution could not prevent the war between India and Pakistan (1971) from starting and terminating, but it extended the time for India till the completion of its mission.
Analytically, Poland’s resolution (1971) has a mammoth share in supporting India’s conspiracies against Pakistan. As per the document, India could easily interfere in Pakistan’s internal matters, as in the case of East Pakistan. Unluckily, Russia also fully promoted the proposal instead of using its veto power in the UNSC against this wicked act, due to which international peace and stability had been hampered. That is why Kashmir and Palestine issues are still pending in international organizations. However, the whole global community do nothing in this context except to see them with dead faces. By and large, world leaders, for their vested interests, exploit the miserable plight of developing countries, even on international platforms.
In a nutshell, Poland’s resolution could not bring a considerable change in the conflict’s outcomes among West Pakistan, India, and East Pakistan. Rather, it highlighted the influence of the global powers’ alliance on international diplomacy. Therefore, the UNSC’s recommendations in the form of this proposal were very surprising for Pakistan, along with America and China. It underpinned the malicious motives of Russia and India in the South Asian region by giving advice to Pakistan to surrender in the war of 1971 in front of India. The icing on the cake is that it did not pay attention to India’s suppression and occupation in Pakistan. So, during this UN meeting, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto ripped up his notes and left the room. In his words,
“Mr President, I am not a rat. I have never ratted in my life. I have faced assassination attempts, and I have faced imprisonments. Today, I am not ratting, but I am leaving your Security Council. “
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