CSS Solved History of USA 2022 Past Paper | “The Revolution was effected before the war commenced. The Revolution was in the heart and minds of the people. “Discuss it regarding the American Revolution.
The following question is attempted by Muhammad Awais Ayyub, the top scorer in CSS History of USA papers. Moreover, the answer is written on the same pattern, taught by Sir to his students, scoring the highest marks in compulsory subjects for years. This solved past paper question is uploaded to help aspirants understand how to crack a topic or question, how to write relevantly, what coherence is, and how to include and connect ideas, opinions, and suggestions to score the maximum.
3-The role of American colonies in the transformation of North America
4-Radical British writers prepare the way for revolution
5-French Indian war – the root cause of the American revolution (1764-1763)
6-Aftermaths of the French and Indian war and American revolution
7-Main powers involved in American Revolution
- ✓British Monarch and British Colonies
- ✓Native Aerican, French, and other European Powers
8-Actions of British Colonies against British Monarch
9-Actions of British Monarchs against British Colonies
10-American Revolution was the Child of Enlightenment
11-Continental Congress Seeks to Resolve Grievances, Causes and Necessity for Rebellion
Answer to the Question
The American Revolution was an ideological and political revolution that occurred in colonial North America. John Adams the former president of America said:
“The revolution was effected before the war commenced. The Revolution was in the minds of the people, and this was effected from 1760 to 1775, in fifteen years before a drop of blood was drawn at Lexington.”
The American Revolution emerged out of the intellectual and political turmoil following Great Britain’s victory in the French and Indian War. American colonists were emboldened to resist new British colonial policies that raised issues of inequalities of power, political rights, and individual freedoms. People such as John Adams and Mercy Otis Warren believed that the British policies stimulated the minds of Americans to demand independence and expanded individual rights. After the discovery of America, British and French colonies with their Indian allies played a major role in American Revolution. Apart from this, some writers like John Locke and Algernon Sidney’s writings supported the political and constitutional rights of the American colonies. Like the Spanish, the French were curious to discover new trade routes to Asia. The result of this has appeared in the form of alliances in North America. The British Monarch and British colonies were on the same side while Native Americans and French were on the same side. The French and Indian war was fought for the cause to gain control over North America. The British Monarch and British colonies won the French and Indian war. The Native Americans went under slavery and the British Monarch started to press British colonies. British Monarchs passed certain acts e.g., the Navigation act, Sugar act, Molasses act, Stamp act, etc. to press the colonies. The British colonies decided to break away. They repeal the stamp act and made a son of liberty a political organization. In retaliation, the British Monarch passed the Declaratory act, Townshend Program, and Boston Tea Party to tighten its grip over the British colonies. Apart from this, enlightenment period was started in Europe. 16th and 17th centuries were ending. People were moving towards the intellect and wisdom. “Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness,” to show to England that American Revolution was the true child of Enlightenment. Finally, two continental conferences were occurred. In the second continental conference, British colonies decided to completely break away from the British Monarch and after that war of independence started. In conclusion, the American revolution was in the hearts and minds of the people before the war of independence. It was the result of different acts passed by the British Monarch against British colonies and the slavery of Native Americans which ultimately lead to the American Revolution.
The American Revolution was a political movement and war that eventually led to American independence from Great Britain. Britain colonies in North America paid huge taxes but did not have representation in British government. In 1765, colonists protested and repeal the Stamp Act, which they viewed as unfair taxation. Protests escalated in the 1770s, and the British government imposed new legislation that limited the colonies’ self-governance. Within three years, the colonies established a Continental Congress, went to war with Britain, and declared independence. The war ended in 1781 with Britain’s surrender to American forces at Yorktown. Before the war of independence, the idea of revolution was floated in the hearts and minds of the people of North America. This idea ultimately led towards the war of Independence.
3-The Role of American Colonies in the Transformation of North America
British and French colonies, with their Indian allies, challenged each other for dominance of North America. British victory in the French and Indian war in 1763, Britain’s colonies demanded rights of political and economic independence. British colonies gained a lot of confidence after winning the French and Indian war. British colonies wanted to decide their future course by themselves. Consequently, the United States replaced Great Britain as the dominant nation in the part of North America lying east of the Mississippi River. Spain control of East and West Florida and held vast territories west of the Mississippi River, While Britain was pushed back to Canada.
4-Radical British Writers Prepare the Way for Revolution
Many republican and anti-authoritarian writers from Great Britain were read and admired by American revolutionaries. Chief among them was John Locke (1632–1704), a well-known anti-authoritarian political philosopher. His famous writings, “A Letter Concerning Toleration” and second “Treatise of Government” both heavily influenced the author of the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson. Many believe that the most memorable language of the Declaration of Independence is derived from John Locke’s works. Algernon Sidney (1622–1683), a republican writer executed for seditious writings. The writings of both men were essential to the natural rights and political philosophies of America’s founders.
5- French Indian War the Root Cause of the American Revolution (1764-1763)
The French and Indian war was fought between British Monarch, British colonies, and Native Americans, the French. The French and Indian war was the bloodiest conflict in the history of North America. The British wanted to remove French from the North America. Because French and Native Americans were Allies. British Monarch and British colonies won the French and Indian war. French removed from North America, Native Americans went under slavery and British Monarch pressed the British colonies by passing unconstitutional and unlawful acts against the British Colonies. French Indian war was the main event from where American Revolution started in a true sense. Although before the French and Indian war idea of Revolution originated in the heart and minds of the people in North America.
6-Aftermaths of French Indian War and American Revolution
The American Revolution was principally caused by colonial opposition to British attempts to impose greater control over the colonies and to make them repay the crown for its defense of them during the French and Indian War (1754–63). British Monarch and British Colonies won the Seven years’ war. British monarchs said they spend on war. They would put colonies under huge taxes. British Monarchs passed certain acts against the British Colonies like the Navigation act, Sugar act, Staple act, Duty act, Molasses act, and major act Stamp act (1765). The stamp act was passed to tax the British colonies. It was mainly the tax on deeds, bonds, paper, etc. If the papers contained the stamp which showed that a tax on them had been paid. French after evacuation from North America wanted to trade with the British Monarch and British Colonies. Under the rallying cry of “No taxation without representation,” Americans resisted (sometimes violently) these attempts to violate what they claimed was their natural and constitutional rights as freemen. American Revolution was started just after the Seven Years’ war when after the French defeat a political and ideological conflict had been started between the British Monarch and British Colonies. British Monarch and Parliament passed certain acts against the British colonies while Native Americans went under slavery. Native Americans were mainly dependent on agriculture for cheap labor.
7-The Main Powers Involved in American Revolution
British colonies, British Monarchs, and European mainly French, Italian, and Native Americans were mainly involved in the American Revolution. The British monarch and British colonies were on the same side at the start of the French and Indian war and after winning the war British Monarch put colonies under huge taxes. British colonies gained a lot of confidence after winning the war. These Colonies want to gain strength by making themselves independent from the oppression of the British Monarch. The British colonies played a major role in the American Revolution. The American revolution started just after the French and Indian war. Native Americans went under slavery so after French removal British colonies and Native Americans fought for the cause of the American Revolution. French being removed from North America played a role in American Revolution as after their removal other European powers had been actively involved in the trade to fulfill their trade motives.
8- Actions of British Colonies against British Monarch
British Monarchs passed some acts against the British colonies. These acts include the Navigation act, Molasses act, Duty act, Staple act, Stamp act, etc. Stamp act (1765) was the main cause by which British colonies stand against the British monarch. The Stamp act was to put a huge tax on deeds, bonds, and paper money. If the paper contained a stamp, then it showed that a tax on them had been paid.
- Stamp Act Congress
British colonies made the stamp act congress to repeal the measures of the stamp act. They send representatives to New York. The First meeting was to take concerted action against the British Monarch to send a petition to kings, Lords, and common in England. The delegates challenged the right of parliament to tax the colonies.
“Declaration of Rights and Grievances”
- Son of Liberty
Political Organization opposes the measures of a privileged class and the British Monarch. It prevents people from using the stamp.
“Slogan Liberty, property and no stamp”
9- Actions of British Monarch against British Colonies
The British Monarch passed some other acts to press the colonies as colonies were fighting for the cause of the American Revolution.
- Declaratory Act
To establish proper control over the British colonies British parliament passed the Declaratory act (1766) and asserted that the king and parliament had proper control over the British Colonies.
- Townshend Program
Grenville’s ministry (Prime Minister at that time) fell ill and Morgue of Rockingham became the next Prime Minister. After the Morgue of Rockingham Charles Townshend became the next Prime Minister. Charles Townshend passed a program known as the Townshend program. Townshend passed the measures which further disturb the relations between the colonies and England.
✓ Impose duties on tea, glass, paint, and paper
✓ Develop custom service
✓ Boston was made the headquarters entire North America
- Boston Massacre and Boston Tea Party
British troops were sent to Boston and radicals hated the troops and protested. Boston people were provoked and a crowd gathered around the disputed area. Soldiers fired at the crowd resulting in deaths and injuries. British government ban on the production of tea in 13 colonies and impose a third tax on tea. Forced the British colonies to buy 17 million pounds of unsold tea from the British East India Company to overcome the loss. Members of Son of Liberty tipped 343 crates of tea into the Boston Harbor. British Parliament passed 3 other acts in reaction to these intolerable acts. To punish Massachusetts, British Parliament closed the Boston part and restricted the local area.
10– American Revolution was the child of Enlightenment
Many revolutionaries made use of Europe’s intellectual flowering, but few did so effectively as Thomas Paine. In his pamphlet, Paine adopted the tenets of reason and nature. He demonstrated that the American Revolution was truly a product of the Enlightenment. In the same way, another theme is the use of nature to explain the necessity of government. English philosopher Thomas Hobbes famously wrote men are created so equal in ambition and ability. In addition, Paine used logic to demonstrate that Britain’s constitutional monarchy is plagued with flaws. He called it complete “absurdity” that Parliament had the power to withhold information from the king when the king was responsible for all final decisions. “The state of a king shuts him from the world,” he said, “yet the business of a king requires him to know it.” This argument against the irrationality of England not only furthered Paine’s push for independence but also provides additional evidence of the enlightened American mindset in the 1770s. With such words and sentiments, Paine and the revolutionaries waged a fiery war of reason, not just against England, but against the monarchy itself. It is commonly said that American Revolution was a true child of Enlightenment.
11- Continental Congress Seeks to Resolve Grievances, Causes, and Necessity for Rebellion
British action in Massachusetts was strictly condemned by other colonies. All the colonies except Georgia sent representatives to Philadelphia in September 1774. The discussion was about British imperial power.
✓ Present unhappy state
✓ To make future policies against British imperial power
The “Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms” put forth the reasons for America’s rebellion that were raised in the 1775 congressional declaration. Thomas Jefferson’s draft was a “Spirited Manifesto,” according to John Adams (1735–1826). The spirited and creative qualities of Jefferson’s writing helped secure his selection as chair of the committee to draft the Declaration of Independence in 1776. British Congress met on May 10, 1776, in a state house in Philadelphia. It is called Independence House. The second continental conference appointed a committee. Thomas Jefferson of Virginia became head of the committee. He prepared a document that outlines the colony’s grievances against the king and the decision to break away. The declaration of independence was adopted on July 4, 1776.
2nd continental conference decides major things
✓ Complete break away from Great Britain
✓ Officials put the colonies in a state of defense
✓ Form an army called American Continental Army
✓ Congress officially appointed George Washington as commander-in-chief of the army
✓ Decided to print the paper money
The revolution was in the hearts and minds of the people. This statement shows that before the war of independence, certain factors were involved in American Revolution. It was mainly the political and ideological differences between the British Monarch, British colonies, Native Americans, and other European states. The cause of liberty was not only driven by elite politicians or military officers but one that sprang from Americans of all classes in a shared common cause. This radical change in the principles, opinions, sentiments, and affections of the people, was the real American Revolution. In Europe, the Enlightenment period was started at the end of the 16th and 17th centuries. People were using intellect and wisdom to pursue happiness and liberty. It is commonly said that American Revolution was a true child of Enlightenment. Likewise, the acts of British Monarchs against the British colonies and the French and Indian war played a role to bring forth the idea of the American Revolution. British monarchs used different ways to press the colonies and put them under huge taxes. In return, British colonies and Native Americans planned to completely break away from British Monarchs. They took practical steps to stop the oppression of British Monarchs. American Revolution was the main concept to completely separate from the Monarch system and establish their own path to plan the future strategy. In conclusion, the American revolution was in the hearts and minds of the people before the war of independence. It was the result of different acts passed by the British Monarch against British colonies and the slavery of Native Americans, which ultimately led to the American Revolution and result appeared in the form of a war of independence.
CSS Solved Past Papers’ Essays
Looking for the last ten years of CSS and PMS Solved Essays and want to know how Sir Kazim’s students write and score the highest marks in the essays’ papers? Then, click on the CSS Solved Essays to start reading them.CSS Solved Essays
CSS Solved General Science & Ability Past Papers
Want to read the last ten years’ General Science & Ability Solved Past Papers to learn how to attempt them and to score high? Let’s click on the link below to read them all freely. All past papers have been solved by Miss Iqra Ali & Dr Nishat Baloch, Pakistan’s top CSS GSA coach having the highest score of their students.General Science & Ability Solved Past Papers
CSS Solved Pakistan Affairs Past Papers
Want to read CSS Pakistan Affairs Solved Past Papers and learn how to attempt them to score high? Let’s click on the link below to read them all freely. All past papers’ questions have been attempted by Sir Kazim’s students, who scored the highest in the subject.CSS Solved Pakistan Affairs
CSS Solved International Relations’ Past Papers
Have you opted for International Relations in the CSS examination and want to score above 150? Then, click on the CSS Solved International Relations’ Past Papers by Miss Abeera Fatima, the top IR scorer and the best IR coach in Pakistan.CSS Solved International Relations Past Papers
Articles Might Interest You!
The following are some of the most important articles for CSS and PMS aspirants. Click on any to start reading.