What is Bureaucracy, and what are its characteristics? How did it play its role in strengthening and integrating Pakistan?


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1- Introduction

Bureaucracy is the body of non-elected public officials who implements government policies and laws. Since the inception of Pakistan, bureaucracy has been at its apex in the 1980s, and now, its situation is deteriorating with every passing day. Further, it is characterized by a firm chain of command, division of labour, and specialization of tasks; moreover, it plays a pivotal role in strengthening and integrating Pakistan by the impartial implementation of laws, effective record keeping, and nonpartisan advisory to the politicians.

2- Overview Of bureaucracy in Pakistan

3- Understanding the term bureaucracy

4-What are the characteristics of bureaucracy?

  • ✓ Hierarchy of authority
  • ✓ Division of labour
  • ✓ Specialization of tasks
  • ✓ Set of formal rules

5- How it plays its role in strengthening and integrating Pakistan?

  • ✓ Impartial implementation of the law
  • ✓ Nonpartisan advisory to the Politicians
  • ✓ Equitable service delivery to the public
  • ✓ Effective record keeping

6- Critical Analysis

7- Conclusion


Bureaucracy has become an engine of economic growth for a country. It facilitates economic growth by promoting infrastructure developments, providing public services, and creating a stable environment for businesses. For example, by providing public services such as education, healthcare, and transportation, bureaucracy can create a more educated and healthy workforce, which can be critical for economic growth. Further, a bureaucracy is a body of non-elected public officials whose primary responsibility is to implement government policies and laws. However, coming towards Pakistan, the country’s bureaucracy has been deteriorating with every passing day, but it was at its apex in the 1980s. Moreover, it is characterized by a hierarchy of authority, division of labour, and specialization of tasks. Furthermore, bureaucracy plays a pivotal role in strengthening and integrating Pakistan: accordingly, impartial implementation of the law, nonpartisan advisory to politicians, and equitable service delivery to the public. Although it touched its zenith in the 1980s, it can do it again by introducing several reforms in bureaucracy. As Quaid Azam Aptly said

“You are civil servants. Whichever gets the majority will form the government, and your duty is to serve the government for the time being as a servant, not as a politician. “

Since its inception, the bureaucracy of Pakistan has suffered a lot. Initially, it lacked accountability of the officials, proper mechanisms to recruit, and many more. Later, under the military regime, several reforms were introduced, like reforms in the Ayyub khan regime and in the Zia ul Haq regime, but it did not change the bureaucracy up to the mark. Nevertheless, in the 1980s, it reached its zenith, but with the passage of time, it started to deteriorate. Still, Pakistan suffers from its ineffective bureaucracy. Fortunately, the introduction of new reforms can make it, again, be at the apex as it was earlier. Therefore, the adverse condition of bureaucracy can be turned into an effective one after the introduction of reforms in it.

Bureaucracy refers to the body of non-elected government officials whose primary function is to implement government policies and laws. In addition to it, the bureaucrats also advise the politicians, who are part of the legislation, and also, deliver services to the public. Besides, it is divided into the federal and provincial levels. Federal bureaucrats are under the command of the Prime Minister, while provincial bureaucrats are under the command of the Governor of the particular province. In addition to the division of it, Federal Public Service Commission(FPSC) is responsible for the recruitment of “The Civil S through the Central Superior Service (CSS) examination; however, at the provincial level, the public service commission of the particular province is responsible for it. Consequently, bureaucracy is one of the main pillars of the state.

You should not be influenced by any political pressure by any political party or individual politician, if you want to raise the prestige and goodness of Pakistan, you must not fall victim to any pressure but do your duty as servants to the people and the state, fearlessly and honestly.

Quaid-e- Azam (The founding Father of the nation)

Before moving towards the role of bureaucracy, here the light is thrown on its characteristics. The bureaucracy is characterized by four main attributes. First and foremost is a hierarchy of authority. The power flows from top to bottom, and the work of one is supervised by its seniors. Further, there is a division of labour in bureaucracy. A single task is divided into many components, and many personnel work on it. Moreover, the specialization of tasks is another characteristic of bureaucracy. Every individual is good at a specific job, so one becomes an expert at the particular job with the passage of time. Last but least, bureaucrat is bound to a set of firm and rigid rules; consequently, the bureaucrats are impersonal to everyone. Hence, the characteristics of bureaucracy made it distinctive from other fields.

Without the pivotal role of bureaucracy, it is impossible to strengthen and integrate a country, especially Pakistan. By the impartial implementation of government policies and laws, a conducive environment is created. It can result in increasing foreign direct investment, and the masses have confidence in the government, resulting in integration. Next to it, the bureaucrat’s primary role is to advise politicians, which are unaware of many things. However, nonpartisan advisory to politicians can help the legislation form an effective policy to achieve its end results. Lastly, service delivery is also the role of bureaucracy. And, the provision of equitable service irrespective of caste, social status, and gender paves the way for a third-world country like Pakistan. Therefore, bureaucracy plays an essential role in strengthening and integrating Pakistan.

Although it is an engine of economic growth, ineffective and inefficient bureaucracy can lead a country towards chaos. Since the birth of Pakistan, it struggled a lot with it till the 1980s when, after the introduction of several reforms, it reached its zenith. Later, it was affected by several factors, like the meddling of politicians, biased implementation of laws, nepotism in the recruitment of masses, and accountability of public employees, that led to its deterioration. Moreover, reforms in bureaucracy is a burning question among the masses in contemporary time. Therefore, the introduction of reforms needs an hour.

To conclude, bureaucracy is a significant pillar of government. It can make and mar the fate of a country. For third-world countries like Pakistan, inefficient bureaucracy serves as a bottleneck to the prosperity and unity of the country. Apart from it, bureaucracy has four main characteristics,i.e. hierarchy, specialization, division of labour, and set of formal rules. Moreover, it can play a significant role in strengthening and integrating Pakistan.

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