What are the Key Features of the US New Indo-Pacific Strategy Under Joe Biden’s Administration? How does it treat China?

What-are-the-Key-Features-of-the-US-New-Indo-Pacific-Strategy-Under-Joe-Bidens-Administration-How-does-it-treat-China

CSS Solved International Relations Past Papers | What are the Key Features of the US New Indo-Pacific Strategy Under Joe Biden’s Administration? How does it treat China?

The following question is attempted by Miss Abeera Fatima, the top scorer in CSS IR paper. Moreover, the answer is written on the same pattern, taught by Sir to his students, scoring the highest marks in compulsory subjects for years. This solved past paper question is uploaded to help aspirants understand how to crack a topic or question, how to write relevantly, what coherence is, and how to include and connect ideas, opinions, and suggestions to score the maximum.

1- INTRODUCTION
2- WHY DOES THE INDO-PACIFIC REGION IMPORTANT TO US?

  • Busiest trade route full of resources, minerals, and warm water
  • ✓Merge the Pacific region with Asia through the silk route
  • ✓Connects two superpowers-China and Russia

3- A GLIMPSE OF NEW INDO-PACIFIC STRATEGY UNDER JOE BIDEN’S ADMINISTRATION

  • ✓Expansion of free and open indo-pacific
  • ✓Correlation at a topographical and geographical level
  • ✓Augmentation of Indo-Pacific peace and security
  • ✓Provision of zonal prosperity
  • ✓Enhancement of regional strengths against transnational threats

4- A GLANCE OF US’ FOREIGN POLICY TO CONTAIN CHINA IN THE 21st Century

  • ✓Strengthening of pre-emptive and deterrence policy
  • ✓Empowerment and marginalization of ASEAN members
  • ✓Vibrant role of India as a regional power
  • ✓Expansion of QUAD and its cooperation
  • ✓Supporting good governance, transparency, and accountability
  • ✓Enhancement of durability in the pacific-island

5- EAGLE(US) VERSUS DRAGON(CHINA): A CRITICAL ANALYSIS
6- CONCLUSION

Answer to the Question

1- INTRODUCTION

The transformation from geopolitical to geostrategic at the global level unveils the different magnitude of influence in surroundings. Hence, the US knitted alliance to contain China in the economic, political, and above all, military domains. Myriad policies regarding the Indo-Pacific region have encircled: Pivot of Asia, Rebalance strategy, Strategic Framework for the Indo-Pacific, and New Indo-Pacific Strategy kick-off. The essential features of the New Indo-Pacific Strategy are an expansion of free and open Indo-Pacific, correlation at a topographical and geographical level, augmentation of Indo-Pacific peace and security, provision of zonal prosperity, and enhancement of regional strengths against transnational threats. The implementation frameworks are strengthening pre-emptive and deterrence policy, empowerment of ASEAN members, the vibrant role of India as a regional power, and expansion of QUAD. A critical analysis of the new policy rolled out.

The United States “will focus on every corner of the region, from Northeast Asia and Southeast Asia, to South Asia and Oceania, including the Pacific Islands.”

2. AN OVERVIEW OF INDO PACIFIC REGION: IMPORTANCE

Indo-West Pacific, also known Indo-Pacific Asia, has been the busiest trade route passing through the “Strait of Malacca,” carrying $5 trillion (almost 40 percent) of world trade. Additionally, natural resources like lithium, cobalt, nickel, and graphite and sources of hydrocarbons exist in the region. It contains the Paracel Islands -a cluster in the northwest corner of the Sea- and the Spratly Islands, located at the southeast corner. It is the gateway to Asia using the silk route. The American presidency, for instance, President Obama’s Pivot to Asia or Rebalance strategy and the Trump Strategic Framework for the Indo-Pacific; therefore, Joe Biden depicts his interest in regional affairs through the diplomacy of free and open policy. 

3. A GLIMPSE OF THE NEW INDO-PACIFIC STRATEGY UNDER JOE BIDEN’S ADMINISTRATION

The Indo-Pacific region contains the lion’s share in Oceania, having inclusivity of eleven choke points. Now, it is imperative to delve US’ smart diplomacy under the statesmanship of Joe Biden. On February 11, 2022 Biden presented a framework of his strategy for the region; therefore, the key features mentioned as under

  • EXPANSION OF FREE AND OPEN INDO-PACIFIC:
    Free and open Indo-Pacific (FOIP) includes sovereignty, independence, peaceful negotiations of conflicts, and trade liberalism through openness, crystal-clear accords, and integration. Here “free” encapsulates the freedom of sovereign states against a coercive attitude; nonetheless, “open” reveals sustainability through connectedness. According to the Indo-Pacific Strategy Report of the US Department of Defense, “the Indo-Pacific Region is the single most consequential region for America’s future.” 
  • CORRELATION AT A TOPOGRAPHICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL LEVEL FOR GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT:
    Five regional treaty alliances – Australia, Japan, the ROK, the Philippines, and Thailand– and strong relationships with trending regional partners, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mongolia, New Zealand, Singapore, Taiwan, Vietnam, and the Pacific Islands, delineate cooperative and collaborative move by the US. The provision of Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD) partners, the collective capacity of the Association of South East Nations (ASEAN) countries on global health, climate change, critical and emerging technology, infrastructure, cyber, education, and clean energy and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) to promote free, fair, and open trade and investment are highly under-covered.  
  • AUGMENTATION OF INDO-PACIFIC PEACE AND SECURITY:
    The bilateral trade between the US and the region is USD 2.3 trillion annually; besides, the FDI is USD 1.3 trillion. In essence, the presence of the state is to guard the sea trade route. To guarantee it, the modernization policy of the US exemplified operations in rapidly evolving threat environments: space, cyberspace, and emerging-technology areas, joint exercises, military and economic expansion, and deterrence against nuclear and ballistic missile systems.
  • PROVISION OF ZONAL PROSPERITY:
    The strong partnership between the US and ASEAN countries to materialize regional growth and prosperity is quoted. The draconian impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic call for mutual economic assistance through a technological transformation: including digital economies, adaptive measures to climate shift, investment in de-carbonization, and clean energy. The project Build Better Back World (B3W) under the shadow of G7 members-Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the European Union– is to equip economic opportunities that enact high-standard infrastructure for peace and prosperity in the region. 5G vendor diversification and Open Radio Access Network (O-RAN) technology are in the limelight in the telecommunication domain.
  • ENHANCEMENT OF REGIONAL STRENGTHS AGAINST TRANSNATIONAL THREATS:
    Global menaces like global warming and terrorism are underlying under the leadership of Joe Biden; hence, rejoining of Paris Agreement is enacted with the target to limit warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius by 2030. Safeguarding the health and sustainable use of the region of the vast ocean, including through the legal use of their resources, enhanced research cooperation, and the promotion of beneficial commerce and transportation through World Health Organizations (WHO), the G7, and the G20 are a focus. Coordination with ASEAN, APEC, and the Pacific Islands Forum (PIF) is imperative.

4. A GLANCE AT FOREIGN POLICY OF US TO CONTAIN CHINA IN THE CONTEMPORARY ERA

STRENGTHENING OF PRE-EMPTIVE AND DETERRENCE POLICY: The US defends its interest against coercive and revisionist policies through operations, military activities, defense industrial initiatives, and a more resilient force posture. Australia signed a trilateral security pact known as Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States (AUKUS) on September 15, 2021, to counter Chinese naval influence in the Indo-Pacific Region. Under this pact, at least eight nuclear-powered submarines ensure to Australia; additionally, cooperation on cyber, artificial intelligence and technologies, undersea capabilities, hypersonic and counter-hypersonic, electronic warfare, innovation, and information sharing is vital.

EMPOWERMENT AND MARGINALIZATION OF ASEAN MEMBERS: Special ASEAN-US summit held to enhance new ministerial-level engagements. Hence, more than USD 100 million in new U.S.-ASEAN initiatives will enact. In the years before Covid-19, almost 60,000 students from ASEAN member states studied in the United States. And through the Young Southeast Asian Leaders Initiative (YSEALI) the United States has sought to promote closer ties with the next generation of regional leaders.

VIBRANT ROLE OF INDIA AS REGIONAL POWER: The status of “Net Security Provider” is given by the US owing to its like-minded skills. The US drives regional fora and is an engine for regional growth and development with the help of India.

EXPANSION OF QUAD AND ITS COOPERATION: Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD) almost recruits its first class of 100 students from all four countries to pursue graduate degrees in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) fields in the United States beginning in 2023.

SUPPORTING GOOD GOVERNANCE, TRANSPARENCY, and ACCOUNTABILITY: The absence of clandestine policy through Open Government Partnership is highly appreciated. For instance, Democracy in Burma is against the Burmese military; the US supports democracy of the Five Point Consensus.

ENHANCEMENT OF DURABILITY IN THE PACIFIC-ISLAND: Improvement of maritime security to safeguard fisheries, strengthening maritime-domain through awareness, and improving the methodology of training and advising; thus, the provision of Compact of Free Association agreements with the Freely Associated States is guaranteed.

“The future of each nation—and indeed the world— depends on a free and open Indo-Pacific enduring and flourishing in the decades ahead.”

President Joe Biden Leaders Of Quad Summit September 24, 2021

5. EAGLE (US) VERSUS DRAGON (CHINA): ASSUMPTIONS

The shift from bipolarity to multipolarity is seen through the naked eye. The competition between Beijing and Washington emerged; the brinkmanship policies, from history, have tilted the way of new leadership toward economic sustainability to maintain the hegemonic balance of power. The projects of China, the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), are considered a debt trap policy by the US. Contrarily, China assumes the Indo-Pacific strategy as a preliminary ideology of the US to connect Indian Oceania and the Pacific region, contain the geopolitical rise of China, promote the US’ protectionist approach, and provoke an interdependency culture. Similarly, skepticism of Chinese scholars has circulated at every inch. Lin Minwang- a researcher at the Fudan University of Shanghai, China– believes that the Indo-Pacific strategy is needed to fabricate a mature dimension; moreover, QUAD is the sole beginning to safeguard the US’ interest in the Indo-Pacific zone.

6. CONCLUSION

In essence, the Indo-Pacific region enjoins symbolic importance. The US reveals its interest in the Indo-Pacific region because it generates 60 per cent of the global GDP. From Pivot to Asia to the new Indo-Pacific Strategy, the power, for sure, delineates smart influence. Hence, the key features of the new Indo-Pacific Strategy are an expansion of free and open Indo-Pacific, the correlation at a topographical and geographical level, augmentation of Indo-Pacific peace and security, provision of zonal prosperity, and enhancement of regional strengths against transnational threats. Hence, the foreign policy of the US is designed in a way to contain the aggressive and coercive policies that include strengthening of pre-emptive and deterrence policy, empowerment of ASEAN members, the role of India as a regional power, and expansion of QUAD. Nevertheless, some assumptions relevant to the strategy have circulated from the counterpart.

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