Kashmir Cause Future and Pakistan’s Role

Kashmir Cause Future and Pakistan’s Role by Amna Manzoor

Kashmir Cause Future and Pakistan’s Role | Daily Writeups and Opinions

The following article, “Kashmir Cause Future and Pakistan’s Role”, is written by Amna Manzoor, a student of Sir Syed Kazim Ali. Moreover, the article is written on the same pattern, taught by Sir to his students, scoring the highest marks in compulsory subjects for years. Sir Kazim has uploaded his students’ solved past paper questions so other thousands of aspirants can understand how to crack a topic or question, how to write relevantly, what coherence is, and how to include and connect ideas, opinions, and suggestions to score the maximum.

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2-Genesis of Kashmir cause

  • ✓Partition of the Indian subcontinent: the 3rd June plan
  • ✓Accession with India by Hari Singh
  • ✓The majority population against the Instrument of Accession

3-Panorama of the current situation in Kashmir

  • ✓Indian Illegally Occupied Kashmir’s (IIOK) illegal revocation of the special status 
  • ✓Demographic changes in IIOK
  • ✓Affirmation of the revocation of special status by India’s top court

4-Pakistan’s role to date in solving Kashmir cause

  • ✓Militaristic approach to resolve the Kashmir issue
  • ✓Showed willingness for bilateral negotiations
  • ✓Highlighted issues of Kashmir internationally
  • ✓Discussion of the matter with the United Nations (UN)
  • ✓Focused attention on using social media highlighting Kashmir cause in Pakistan

5-Prospects of possible solutions to the Kashmir cause

  • ✓Plebiscite in Kashmir- UN resolution 47
  • ✓Independent Kashmir- dreamed by many Kashmiri nationalists
  • ✓Peaceful negotiation between India and Pakistan
  • ✓Partition by Owen Dixon’s plan
  • ✓Andorra Model as a solution
  • ✓Status quo as a fate
  • ✓China supplanted the USA as a superpower

6-Possible steps Pakistan should adopt to obtain the best outcomes for Kashmir

  • ✓Devise specialized Kashmir desks all over the world to make people aware masses of the actual situation
  • ✓Engage international media to expose Indian brutality
  • ✓Take steps to improve the country’s economic conditions- beggars cannot be choosers
  • ✓Utilize other global forums to create pressure on India for bilateral negotiations

7-Critical Analysis


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Answer to the Question


The enduring Kashmir conflict deemed the longest-standing unresolved issue at the United Nations (UN), looms ominously, suggesting that the failure to address it promptly could ignite a nuclear showdown between the two atomic giants of South Asia. It has been a bone of contention and a source of bitterness between India and Pakistan since 1947. Although the conflict has expanded rapidly, it can be resolved if tackled sagaciously. Examining history, Pakistan has played its role in highlighting the Kashmir cause in front of the whole world, including discussions in the UN for almost 50 years, sensitizing the issue in the international community, and using social media in Pakistan. Indeed, the best and most just solution to end the conflict is to hold a referendum that will determine the will of the Kashmiri people- who have an absolute right to choose their destiny. Other possible and logical options for resolution of the conflict are the Owen Dixon Plan, Andorra Plan 1975, and Independent Kashmir. It is high time Pakistan took every possible measure to bring this conflict to an end; otherwise, both Kashmir and Pakistan could have to bear the consequences. Further, Pakistan should establish specialized Kashmir desks worldwide where her embassies are present to create awareness among the masses, find avenues of cooperation with international media, and improve its economy. In a nutshell, the Kashmir cause can be resolved if both countries are willing to do so, and it is the need of the hour for Pakistan to play a considerable role in getting it done.

Genesis of Kashmir cause

Talking about its occurrence, Kashmir’s cause- conflict over its sovereignty between India and Pakistan- started right after the partition of the Indian subcontinent. According to the 3rd June plan, the princely states, whose majority population had different religions and the ruler had different ones, would accede to the country, whether Pakistan or India, per the population’s wish. In the case of a princely state with a Muslim majority, Kashmir, the Maharaja signed the Instrument of Accession (IOA) with India’s government despite the population’s majority being Muslim and wanting to join Pakistan. Pakistan claims Kashmir as its territory, saying the Muslim-majority area should have been part of the new state of Pakistan, created in 1947 when British colonial rule ended in the partition of the Indian subcontinent. It asserts that the Indian government’s authority over the region is illegal, and it has been advocating for a resolution to the issue through diplomatic means and, in the past, has engaged in conflicts over the territory. The nuclear-armed neighbours- India and Pakistan- have fought three of their four wars over it since then.

Panorama of the current situation in Kashmir 

At present, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) government in India is having a complete focus on changing the demography of IIOK by settling and issuing Kashmiri domicile to non-Muslims who are pro-India and will vote in favour of India, but not Pakistan, as if in case of plebiscite- according to UN resolution-47- occurs in Kashmir in future. It all started after the revocation of the special status of IIOK by abrogating Articles 370 and 35A of the Indian constitution by the Indian government on August 5, 2019. Moreover, the Indian Supreme Court, on a petition filed by Kashmiri individuals and groups on December 11, 2023, has backed the act of the Indian government of removal of the semi-autonomy of IIOK as legal and has told to hold elections in the region.

“Many Kashmiris view the 2019 decision as an annexation, saying new laws were designed to change the region’s demographics. Members of minority Buddhist communities initially welcomed the move, but many later feared losing land and jobs in the Himalayan area.”

Al Jazeera, 11 December 2023

Pakistan’s role to date in resolving the Kashmir issue

Stepping ahead, the underlying factors of Pakistan’s Kashmir policy have remained unchanged since the birth of the Kashmir cause. Pakistan has struggled to resolve the issue in every possible way; even she did not abandon herself from utilizing a military approach whenever demanded by the situation. To illustrate, Pakistan got involved in three wars due to its jugular vein-Kashmir- in its history, including the First Kashmir War(1947), Operation Gibraltar (1965), and the Kargil War (1999). Moreover, she has shown a willingness to engage in bilateral, peaceful negotiations with archrival India, but India never comes to the table. Pakistan’s PM, Shehbaz Sharif, in January 2023, during an interview with the Arabia channel, said: “I will give my word that we will talk to India with sincerity, but it takes two to tango.” However, India preferred to worsen the issue; for instance, by revoking Articles 370 and 35-A in August 2019, she imposed a security lockdown and communication blackout in IIOK to avoid retaliation from the people against the government’s act of abrogation of the special status of Kashmir. As a result, Pakistan has courageously raised its voice for the rights of Kashmiris by highlighting the issue in the international community and briefing at the platform of UNO. Still, unfortunately, the conflict remained unresolved as only a few countries appeared on the horizon to support Pakistan’s stance. 

“India reneged from a commitment made at the UN in 1949. However, Kashmir is a political, security, human rights, and humanitarian problem. Pakistan will continue to raise these issues, as has been the case throughout history, of extending its moral, political and diplomatic support to the people of Kashmir.”

Muhammad Syrus Sajjad Qazi

Prospects of possible solutions for Kashmir cause

Delving deep into possibilities to resolve the matter, the Kashmir issue is a complex and sensitive matter; but still, there have been various proposals to resolve the cause with political rather than military resolutions, which are examined and evaluated. On the one hand, the possibility of Kashmir’s autonomy is considered- dreamed by many Kashmiri nationalists- as a result of a plebiscite in Kashmir following UN resolution 47.  Polls conducted in 2010 throughout the region found that most of those in Jammu and Kashmir responded in favour of independence- between 74 per cent and 95 per cent supported independence. On the other hand, if India came across the table with Pakistan for peaceful negotiation in the case of Kashmir, then the Partition Plan by Sir Owen Dixon seems the most feasible to follow. That consists of the division of Kashmir into four regions and doing justice like giving Buddhist majority areas to India, Muslim majority areas to Pakistan, and plebiscite in Kashmir valley. Besides, the Partition by Andorra Model is also a feasible solution. As far as the role of the international community is concerned, the current global order shows that there appears to be no change in the current situation of the status of the Kashmir conflict as the world’s superpower- the USA- is on India’s side. And they do not seem interested in the resolution of conflict but the accession of the state by India. Tables may turn around if the world’s superpower position shifted to China- an alley of Pakistan; it will be engaging in solving the dispute to maintain peace in its surroundings.

Possible steps Pakistan should adopt to obtain the best outcomes

However, pragmatic steps can be helpful in the resolution of the issue at large. It is high time Pakistan improved its foreign policy. She needs to take every possible measure to stabilize its economy so that its claim will be given international attention because it is all about the game of economy and benefits. Moreover, Pakistan should also devise specialized Kashmir Desks all over the world- where Pakistan’s embassies are present- to make people aware masses of the actual situation of Kashmir and the brutalities of India. Also she should better engage international media to expose Indian injustice to Kashmiris and the rest of the world. Finally, other international forums like OIC and SAARC can be utilized to create pressure on India for bilateral negotiation.

Critical analysis

Kashmir is the most critical single conflict in the subcontinent, whose peaceful resolution is inevitable for the stability of the South Asian region. Various suitable models are available to resolve the issue. Even though the UNO has passed five resolutions regarding the cause, India is unwilling to cooperate and wants the whole state to join in its accession. Pakistan needed to be more robust to make things happen in her favour, so she needed a stable economy to be listened to and considered internationally.

“Beggars cannot be choosers.”

John Heywood


In a nutshell, the Kashmir issue has been disturbing the region’s peace since its birth. The situation is getting worse each passing day after the revocation of IIOK’s special status by the Indian government. Consequently, Pakistan took every possible step to highlight the issue to the international community and the general masses. Still, the international community has yet to take any feasible measures to solve the problem practically. It is inevitable for Pakistan to take specific measures, including changes in foreign policy, to make a better impression on the international scene. It will be beneficial for global powers to listen to them to resolve the issue practically and not only follow resolutions by the UN.

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