Discuss in Detail How Globalization Has Affected the Concept of Security?

Discuss-in-Detail-How-Globalization-Has-Affected-the-Concept-of-Security

CSS Solved International Relations Past Papers | Discuss in Detail How Globalization Has Affected the Concept of Security?

Shehzadi Sammer Fatima, the highest scorer in the CSS IR paper, attempts the following question. The question is attempted in the same way that Miss Abeera Fatima, the top IR scorer, has been attempting. Moreover, the answer is written on the same pattern, taught by Sir to his students, scoring the highest marks in compulsory subjects for years. This solved past paper question is uploaded to help aspirants understand how to crack a topic or question, how to write relevantly, what coherence is, and how to include and connect ideas, opinions, and suggestions to score the maximum. 

Question Breakdown

In this question, the examiner has asked you to explain the impacts of globalization on security; you have to elaborate on the concept of globalization in international relations and its repercussions on national and human security through examples quoting scholars’ viewpoints, along with the theoretical application. Further, you must explain how globalization has caused insecurities in the world. All of these insecurities contain illustrations, references, and statistics. Finally, you critically analyze some measures of maintaining security in a globalized world. 

Outline

Introduction
An analysis of globalization in terms of security

  1. Definition of globalization and security
  2. Relationship between globalization and security
  3. Scholars’ viewpoint on security in a globalized world
  4. Theoretical application: neo-liberalist in a globalized world
  • Insecurities in a globalized world
  1. Economic insecurities
  2. National and political insecurities
  3. Physical insecurities
  4. Health insecurities
  5. Environmental insecurities
  6. Cyber insecurities
  • A critical analysis: how to maintain security in integrated world
  • Conclusion

Answer to the Question

1-Introduction

The last decade of the 20th century has been a period of rapid changes in the world. Many of these changes are part of the process of globalization. It is a multidimensional phenomenon; it includes trade, economic interdependencies, information technology, scientific alliance, and collaboration. Globalization is a cyclic process. It has created a real possibility to achieve economic prosperity, spread political freedom and promote peace. Yet they are also producing powerful forces of social fragmentation, creating critical vulnerabilities and sowing the seeds of violence and conflict. Most dangerously, a variety of threats in the form of; terrorism, non-state actors, cyberbullying, and weapon of mass destruction are spreading due to the dispersion of advanced technologies and the movement of the people. According to Anna Lind, ‘’ Globalization has made us more vulnerable. It creates a world without borders.’’

2- Concept of Globalization and Security in International Relations

Definition of Globalization

John Bylis in his book defines “Globalization of World politics‘’ the process of increasing interconnectedness between societies such that events in one part of the world have more and more effects on people and societies far away. As a complex and multifaceted phenomenon, globalization is form of capitalism which entails the integration of local and national economies into a global and unregulated market economy.

Definition of Security

According to Barry Buzan, ‘’ Security is taken to be about the pursuit of freedom from threat and the ability of states and societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change which they see as a hostile’’.

Relationship Between Globalization and Security

At the threshold of the 21st century, two terms have dominated the study of international relations: globalization and security. However, globalization is a force that impacts the ability of the state to secure in the traditional sense. As a result of transformation due to globalization, the state is offering a new type of security: human security that emphasizes the military aspect and the other dimensions like the economic, environmental, political, financial, and technological aspects. The new way of defending is no longer a unilateral approach but a multilateral coalition of forces. Thus, the relationship between globalization and security is much more complicated than a simple linear linkage.

Scholars’ Viewpoint on Security in a Globalized World

Barry Buzan argued that the content of International Security has expanded over the years to cover variety interconnected issues in the globalized world. It ranges from the traditional mode of military power to infectious diseases, global warming, and activities of non-state actors. Roland Robertos interpreted that human insecurity at the individual group or national level is a consequence of rapid socioeconomic and political changes inherent in globalization.

Theoretical Application: Neo-Liberalism in a Globalized World

Neo-Liberalists adopt a consistently positive attitude toward globalization. For economic liberals, globalization reflects the victory of the market over irrational national allegiances and arbitrary state borders. Liberals also believe that globalization brings social and political benefits. The free flow of information and ideas around the world; widens opportunities for personal self-development and creates mode dynamic and vigorous society. It leads to economic interdependence that minimizes security risks by promoting peace.

3-Globalization Causes Insecurities on Multiple Fronts

Globalization is a dichotomous process of integrated fragmentation that has generated new security challenges beyond the control of the state. The UNDP Human Development Report, “globalization with a human face has captured the indices of inequality and marginalization within the global economy.”

Thus, threats to human security are multidimensional and include:

Economic Insecurities

  • Labour Market Instabilities and Threat to Job Securities

 The relationship between globalization and economic insecurity is pen down in the article of Raphel Kaplin, Globalization and Economic insecurity. Kaplinski argues the growth of global competition, particularly labor-intensive activities, has driven down wages of unskilled labor. Poverty and income distribution, while allowing the holders of scarce skills to benefit from the rewards of globalization, have led to an increase in economic insecurity and marginalization of the effects of being less skilled. With ever-changing technology, people need ever-changing skills in rich countries; however, some lack the basics. Thus, one person in six is functionally illiterate, unable to fill out a job application excluded from the rapidly changing world that demands new information processing skills.

  • Pakistan is in a Debt Trap of IMF

 Although International Monetary Fund (IMF) aims for poverty reduction. In contrast, borrower countries experience a higher rate of poverty as the loan arrangement; contributes to more people getting trapped in a poverty cycle. Rickard and Caraway observe that such a loan program reduces government spending on the public sector. A case in the point-Pakistan is the debt trap of the IMF.

National and Political Insecurities

Globalization definitely influences the state’s politics. It weakens state politics while militarizing both the state and sub-state actors, contributing systematically to the emergence of inter and intra- state conflicts.

  • International and Transnational Institutions- Violation of National Sovereignty

Since the early nineteen century, the European Interstate system has been developing, increasingly the consensual international normative order. It regulates all sorts of interactions. It has been termed global governance by Crag Murphy and refers to the growth of specialized and general international organizations. For instance, the emergence of the League of Nations and now succeeded by United Nations. At the regional level, the frequent union European Union and the Arab League is quoted. Now, a state must manage national politics in such a way as to adapt them to the process of transnational market forces. The future would see more states edging to conform to the norm laid down by these organizations.

  • The Proliferation of Dangerous Weapons is a Threat to State Sovereignty

The specter of terrorists and other violent nonstate actors acquiring weapons of mass destruction is perhaps an ever-great concern for the state’s sovereignty. Recently, AUKUS (AUSTRALIA-UK-US) nuclear-powered submarines deal will also set a dangerous precedent for the transfer of nuclear weapons. Similarly, Russian President Vladimir Putin has warned that Moscow would use all Weapons of Mass Destruction to defend its territory against Ukraine.

Human Insecurities

  • The Global Crimes Ratio Increased Due to Globalization

Globalization facilitates many criminal operations. For example, money laundering is easier with globalized banking. Similarly, the Japanese yakuza are financing Pornography in the Netherlands. The silicon mafia selling drugs in New York’s new technologies opened an opportunity for a job but also for crime. A computer hacker can steal millions from the financial institution. Terrorist networks have globalized and operate globally with cells in North America, Europe, the Middle East, and elsewhere.

Human Trafficking Due to immense integration, trafficking is considered easy and profitable. According to United Nations Development Program, trafficking in women and girls accounts for U. S$ 7 billion. Terrorism also resurged due to immense integration.

 Health Insecurities

  • SPREAD oF DISEASES

The spread of diseases throughout the world is not new. However; greater global interaction exacerbates this problem. For instance, the spread of HIV/ AID can be a case in the point. Today 42 million people living with HIV over 95% of them in developing countries and 75% in sub-Saharan Africa. Covid-19 is also a vector of globalization.

Environmental Degradation

Globalization has featured extensively in the debates on environmentalism. Activists have pointed out that globalization has led to an increase in the consumption of products, which has impacted the ecological cycle. Increased consumption leads to an increase in the production of goods, which in turn put stress on the environment.

  • Increased Emissions of Greenhouse Gases: Globalization promotes the transport of goods all around the world. Carbon dioxide emissions from vehicles contribute to pollution, climate change, and ocean acidification around the world and have been shown to significantly impact biodiversity.
  • Global Warming as a Product of Globalization: The topic of global warming and globalization is so present at the moment because people are already feeling the effects of global warming in many parts of the world. Globalization heating up our planet up to 1.5C, and with climate change, extreme weather events such as floods and droughts will become more frequent and more severe and this scaring our affluent generation.

Identity Crises and Cyber Insecurities

  • Information technology and communication network are the central features of globalization. Although globalization facilitated the spread of cultural beliefs and values, it is also disseminating ideas regarding innovation of crimes and unethical conduct. The advent of social media has blurred the lines between governmental and industrial secrets, public discourse, private and personal affairs, news, and trivial information. Social media campaigns also led to the Arab Spring of 2011. Case in point: EU Dis info Lab exposed India’s disinformation campaign against Pakistan.
  • The Brussels-based EU Dis info lab uncovered a vast network of 265 coordinated fake local media outlets in 65 countries serving Indian interests as well as multiple dubious think tanks and NGOs. Fake news outlets were managed by Indian stakeholders to undermine Pakistan’s soft image.

4- Critical Analysis: How to Maintain Security in a Globalized World?

The study of international security has been at the heart of international relations studies. Therefore, government, their agencies and other stakeholders need to be consistently vigilant to the risks of globalization that endanger the safety of the citizens. The focus should be on safeguarding borders, retaining orderly migration, defending against military threats and projecting military power citizens. Furthermore, sound macroeconomic policies need to be encouraged. Moreover, to reduce poverty in sub–Saharan African countries, both domestic and foreign investment is required. In addition to it, promotion of democracy and spread of political freedom is need of an hour to maintain security. Lastly, preventing cyber-attacks with new security standards and attack assessment is necessary.

5- Conclusion

To conclude, globalization is an irreversible and cyclic process. In the field of security, globalization has led states to cooperate and to unite their efforts to overcome barriers. In parallel, it has also affected the general perception of security; it allows targets to hit at great distance, the disappearance of borders, resurgence of non-state actors drug trafficking and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Thus, many dimensions of globalization call for a new way of approaching security in the coming decades. There is need to seize the opportunities presented by globalization to promote economic growth and build democracy. States are still powerful to ensure the safety and security of individual and community.

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