CSS Solved General Science And Ability Past Paper 2010

CSS Solved General Science And Ability Past Paper 2010

The CSS Special Solved General Science & Ability (GSA) Past Paper 2010 is Solved by Pakistan’s top GSA Coach, Miss Iqra Ali. They are the only coaches available in Pakistan who have solved the last 20 years’ GSA solved papers to help aspirants know how to attempt the paper to score above 80. And they have guided thousands of CSS and PMS aspirants. Both coaches have been known for their teaching methodology and imparting concepts to their students, who scored the highest marks in this subject. At the special request of CSSPrepForum, both coaches have solved the paper.



Question No. 2

(A) Write short note on the following by giving their exact life span and contributions to the field of science.
1. Al-Biruni
2. Ibn al-Haitham

In this question, the examiner has asked to briefly describe the ‘life span’ and ‘scientific contributions of AlBiruni and Ibn al-Haitham’. However, the header of “Contribution of Muslim Scientists” is no longer part of the syllabus of General Science and Ability. Therefore, neither its answer is provided, nor students are supposed to prepare it for the exams.

Question No. 3

(A) What do you know about hereditary diseases? Comment how they are transferred from parents to offsprings?

Question Breakdown

This question asks you to explain what are ‘hereditary diseases’ and ‘transmission of hereditary diseases’. To solve this question, write down the definition of hereditary diseases and then write examples of different diseases. To explain the next part elaborately, you need to point out transmission patterns, the variants that are responsible for transmission and categorical transmission patterns. This question requires generalized and particular knowledge as well. For further comprehension, add a diagram


Hereditary Diseases

Hereditary disorders are diseases caused by genetic or chromosomal changes that are transmitted from parents to offspring. They can be passed down through one or both parents, and several members of the same close family may be affected by the same condition.

  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Cancer
  • Diabetes
Transfer of Hereditary Diseases

Hereditary diseases are transferred through various ways from parents to their children. Genes and chromosomes are responsible for this transfer as mutation occurs. Some of the types of transfer as follows

  • Autosomal Dominant Inheritance

When a child inherits a normal gene from one parent and a defective gene from the other, autosomal dominant heredity takes place. The term “autosomal” refers to a DNA abnormality that can affect any of the 22 non-sex chromosomes found in every cell of the body. Dominant implies that only one parent must pass on the defective gene in order for the disease to appear. Each child has a 50% chance of inheriting the disease and the defective gene in families where one parent possesses the gene. Both men and women are similarly at risk, and each individual will experience the disorder’s severity differently.

  • Autosomal Recessive Inheritance

Due to autosomal recessive transfer, both parents must possess and transmit the defective trait. Despite having one defective trait each, neither of the parents has the disease. Children in such families have a 25% chance of receiving both copies of the defective gene and a 50% chance of receiving just one copy, making them carriers who can transmit the defect on to their offspring. This genetic ability can have an impact on kids of either sex.

  • X-Linked Inheritance

When a woman carries an abnormal gene on one of her two X chromosomes and transfers it onto her son, the condition is known as X-linked recessive inheritance. Sons of carriers are 50% more likely to acquire the condition. Since the healthy X chromosome they receive from their father can balance the faulty one they receive from their mother, daughters also have a 50% chance of getting the defective gene but typically are not impacted. An X-linked disorder cannot be passed from an affected father to his boys, but it can be passed to girls.

  • Chromosomal Abnormalities

Abnormalities in chromosomes can occur at any birth. These risks may also be caused by absent genes. Changes include deletions, inversions, insertions, or translocations.

Hereditary Diseases Chart

Question No. 4

(B) Write briefly about the following:
1. Plaster of Paris
2. Reflex Action
3. Pace Maker
4. Swine Flue
5. Microwave Oven
6. The Internet
7. Voltage Stabilizer

Question Breakdown

To answer this question, write down about Plaster of paris, its manufacture and further its uses, all in no more than one line. To describe the Reflex arc properly, define the reflex arc, write its components to the point, and draw its diagram as well. Likewise, write a brief note on the maker and describe its usage and functionality. For writing a note about diseases like ‘SwineFlu’ write down its causes, signs and symptoms and treatment/ prevention and so on


1. Plaster of Paris

Plaster that sets quickly and is made of a fine white powder that becomes rigid when wet and left to dry is called plaster of Paris.

  • Manufacturing of Plaster of Paris
    Gypsum (calcium sulphate) crystals and water are mixed to create plaster of Paris.
  • Uses of Plaster of Paris
  1. Use to create moulds and templates for statues.
  2. Use to make chalks and as a fireproofing substance.
  3. Use in clinics to keep the injured area immobile in the case of a bone fracture or injury.
  4. Use to fill small gaps in walls and ceilings.
2. Reflex Action

A sudden, automatic reaction to stimuli is known as a reflex action. It aids organisms in rapidly adapting to unfavourable conditions that may have the potential to cause damage to them.

  • Components of Reflex Action
    There are five components of reflex action
  1. Receptor
  2. Sensory neuron
  3. Associative neuron
  4. Motor neuron
  5. Effector
  • Example of Reflex Action
    Pulling our hand after touching a hot object
3. Pace Maker

An implanted electrical instrument that monitors the heart’s rate and rhythm.

  • ✤ Reason for implanting Pacemaker
    The most frequent cause of pacemaker implantation is when a person’s heart beats too slowly or stops.
  • Use of Pacemaker
    A pacemaker is used to keep the heart beat at a normal rate so that heart chambers beat in sync to provide blood to the whole body.
4. Swine Flu

Pig respiratory disease known as “swine flu” frequently results in influenza outbreaks. It is rare in humans.

  • ✤ Causative Agent of Swine Flu
    It is caused by Type A Influenza Virus.
  • ✤ Symptoms of Swine Flu
    Fever, cough, sore throat, headaches, chills and fatigue are symptoms of swine flu.
  • Prevention of Swine Flu
  1. Do not get close to the pigs who are ill.
  2. Wash your hands in case of exposure to infected pigs with soap.
  3. Use an alcohol hand rub to prevent further infection.
5. Microwave Oven

A device using microwaves similar to radiowaves for heating food is called Microwave oven.

  • Invention of Microwave Oven
    It was invented by Percy Spencer.
  • Working Principle of Microwave Oven
    Inside the oven, an electron tube generates microwaves. Food absorbs the microwaves after they are reflected by the oven’s metal interior. Food is cooked in microwaves by creating heat by vibrating the water molecules.

You can aslo read some interesting facts about the Microwave Oven here in the link

6. The Internet

The Internet is a global system of computer networks that allows users at any one computer to request information from any other computer.

  • Invention of the Internet
    Bob Kahn and Vint Cerf, American computer scientists, invented the internet.
  • Advantages of Internet
  1. It provides us with information beyond this world.
  2. It can make us communicate to far off places.
  3. Banking is made easy through the Internet. We can also buy and sell things.
  4. The Internet can also be used in free time for entertainment.
7. Voltage Stabilizer

An electrical device known as a voltage stabilizer provides a constant voltage to a load at its output terminals despite variations in the input source voltage.

  • Working of Voltage Stabilizer
    If the input voltage is low, a temperature stabilizer boosts it to the normal voltage through the mechanism, and if it’s too high, it reduces the voltage.
  • Use of Voltage Stabilizer
    The voltage stabilizer is used to keep the electrical appliances safe in case of high or low voltages.
Voltage Stabilizer

Question No. 5

(A) What is global warming? Is there a sunny side to global warming? If yes, explain.

Question Breakdown

In this question the examiner has asked about ‘Global warming’. In this, you have to define and describe Global warming. Further, the important part of the question is to write a ‘sunny side’ to global warming, which means you have to write a pleasant aspect of global warming. Thus, divide the question into two and address accordingly.


Global Warming – An Overview
  • Define Global Warming

The gradual increase in the planet’s surface temperature is known as global warming. Global warming has been seen since the pre-industrial era (between 1850 and 1900), and is attributed to human actions

  • Causes of Global Warming

Fossil fuels, which include coal, oil, and gas, are by far the biggest cause of climate change, contributing more than 75% of all greenhouse gas emissions and almost 90% of all carbon dioxide emissions. The radiation from the sun is trapped on Earth as a result of greenhouse gas pollution. Global heat and climate change result from this.

  • Effects of Global Warming

Environmental changes brought on by global warming may have a negative effect on human health. Additionally, it can result in an increase in sea level, which poses a danger to wildlife, a shift in precipitation patterns, an increase in the likelihood of droughts and floods, and the loss of coastal territory.

Is there a sunny side to global warming?

There are some short-term and long-term benefits from global warming. In other words, the flip side of increased mortality from heat waves may be decreased mortality from cold waves.

  • Short-term Impacts
  1.  Farmers in some regions may benefit from the earlier onset of spring and a longer warm season suitable for growing crops.
  2. Up to a certain point, crops and other plants grow better with higher carbon dioxide levels and seem more drought-tolerant.
  • ✤ Long-term Impacts
  1. Due to the loss of Arctic sea ice, shipping commerce can benefit from the opening of the Northwest Passage for longer periods of the year.
  2. Formation of new lands and more fertile because they are never used before.
  3. Poles will be inhabited, and people can live in polar areas.
  4. Due to the melting of glaciers, there will be more water in rivers, and the water deficiency will decrease.
  5. The Arctic zone will become fertile and provide immense opportunities for exploitation and exploration. There will be the potential for more plant development and warmer weather in some of the world’s icy areas, including Siberia, the Antarctic, and the Arctic.
  6. There may be a way to stop the next ice age

(B) What makes the seasons happen?

Question Breakdown

The examiner in this question has asked to explain the phenomenon of season formation. To explain this, first, you have to define seasons, then write the names of seasons in one line. And, finally, after setting a context, come to the main part, that is, the season formation process. Do not forget to add diagrams to particularly those topics that cannot stand without figures.


Define Seasons

The 1-year period is distinguished by distinct weather patterns and daylight hours as a consequence of the earth’s shifting angular relationship with the sun. This distinction is known as seasons. Spring, summer, autumn, and winter all occur in normal succession. Each has recurring annual trends of light, temperature, and weather.

How do seasons occur?

There are two main reasons for Earth’s seasons:

  • The tilted axis of the Earth

The orbit of the Earth is not perfect; the Earth’s axis is tilted at an angle of about 23.5 degrees. Therefore, the axis of the Earth does not stand up straight. When the North Pole tilts toward the sun for the half of the year, it’s summer in the Northern Hemisphere, and when the South Pole tilts toward the sun for the other half of the year, it’s winter in the Northern Hemisphere.

  • ✤ Revolution of the Earth

Revolution of the earth is responsible for the occurrence of seasons, like summer and winter. It takes 365 days to complete one revolution around the sun, and seasons vary in the south and the north of the globe.

Question No. 6

In which region of the world, the following animals are found? Give two main characteristics of each.
(a) Blind dolphin (b) Kangaroo(c) Panda (d) Kiwi (e) Penguin

Question Breakdown

In this question, the examiner has asked to state the region of the animals. The examiner has also asked to mention two characteristics of each animal. In order to answer this question, you need to mention their area and characteristics. There is no need to stretch the length of your answer with unnecessary information, as it will do more harm than good.


Blind Dolphin
LocationBlind dolphin is found in Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and the Indus River.
CharacteristicsThey have long teeth that are also visible with the mouth closed.
They are an indicator of the aquatic environment.
LocationKangaroo is a national animal of Australia. It is also found in Tasmania and nearby islands.
CharacteristicsKangaroos have short hair with red, grey or brown fur coats.
Have excellent hearing capacity and sharp sight.
LocationPanda live in temperate regions of China. It is also found in Canada, Germany and Japan.
CharacteristicsPanda’s black and white coat gives them camouflage.
They can swim and can climb trees to eat bamboos.
LocationKiwi is a flightless bird endemic to New Zealand.
CharacteristicsIt has loose hair-like feathers and strong legs.
It is the only bird with nostrils at the end of the beak.
LocationThe Galapogas Island, New-Zealand and South Africa are natural habitats of penguin. They are national birds of Antarctica.
CharacteristicsTheir body is tapered at both ends for swimming.
They have short legs and webbed feet that give them an upright posture.

Question No. 7

(A) In which organ these parts are present in animals or human body?
(B) Describe the function of each briefly:
(i) Coronary artery  (ii) Sino-auricular Node  (iii) Aortic Valve (iv) Auricle

Question Breakdown

This question requires the location of some parts, Coronary Artery, Sino-auricular Node (sino- atrial node exactly), Aortic Valve, and Auricle, in the animal or human body and the function of these parts. So, for the first part, give an answer in a line or two, and then for the second part, explain the function of each, briefly, keeping the number of parts and marks of the question into consideration. Here, two functions each are enough.


Parts Present in Organ

Coronary Artery, Sino-Auricular Node, Aortic Valve and Auricle are the parts of “Heart” in the human body, the major organ of the body helping blood pump throughout the body.

  • Coronary Artery
Part of HeartLocation of the part in HeartFunction of the Part in Heart
Coronary ArteryOrigniating from ascending aorta, coronary arteries encircle the heart from base to the apexThe coronary artery is the branch of arteries that supplies oxygenated blood to the heart muscles. There are various kinds of coronary artery, each supplying the blood to a partivular part of the heart.
  • ✤ SinoAtrial Node
Part of HeartLocation of the part in HeartFunction of the Part in Heart
Sino Atrial NodeThe SA node is a collection of myocytes in the form of a crescent that is separated by connective tissue and occupies a few square millimeters. It can be found where the superior vena cava orifice meets in the right atrium’s top wall.The top heart chambers (atria) contract as a result of an electrical stimulus produced by the SA (sinoatrial) node. The lower ventricles then contract or pump as a result of the stimulus as it travels through the AV node. The SA node is known as the heart’s pacemaker.
  • ✤ Aortic Valve
Part of HeartLocation of the part in HeartFunction of the Part in Heart
Aortic ValveOne of the four valves that regulate blood movement in the heart is the aorta valve. It divides the body’s major artery from the left ventricle, the bottom left chamber of the heart.Aortic Valve plays a role of control mechanism . It opens to let the blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta when the heart pumps blood to body, and closes to prevent blood from flowing back in the wrong direction
  • Auricle
Part of HeartLocation of the part in HeartFunction of the Part in Heart
AuricleAuricle, also known as the auricular appendage, in human heart is an ear-shaped, conical muscular projection that arises from each atrium, the cube shapeed upper chambers of the heart.(The term auricle has also been applied, incorrectly, to the entire atrium.) The auricles serve as reservoirs for blood, allowing the atria to store a larger volume of blood before it is pumped into the ventricles. Further, it helps to maintain the smooth flow of blood into the atria by reducing turbulence and promoting efficient filling of the ventricles.

Question No. 8

Differentiate between the following pairs:
(A) Hydrometer and Hygrometer
(B)Perimeter and Telemeter
(C) Isotopes and Isomers
(D) Flying mammal and Bird
(E) Vertebrates and Invertebrates

Question Breakdown

In this question you are being asked to differentiate the terms given. Deal every part separately in the table. Here, every part is solved on the pattern that can help aspirants solve a five-marks question asked since 2016. In order to differentiate between hydrometer and hygrometer, write about their usage and application. To discriminate between perimeter and telemeter write down their contrasts and draw a diagram as well. Isotopes and isomers can be differentiated by writing their chemical configurations and making a labelled diagram as well. Flying mammals and birds show a variety of distinct features that can be written with examples. Vertebrates and invertebrates show a comparison and fully elaborate points need to discussed.


Hygrometer and Hydrometer
A hygrometer counts the quantity of water vapor in the air to determine humidityThe specific gravity (SG) of a liquid is measured by a hydrometer, which floats in the liquid.  
Working principle of Hygrometer
Evaporative cooling is the mechanism by which hygrometers work. Water droplets take heat from the surface during evaporation, which causes water to become cold when it leaves a surface.    
Working principle of Hydrometer    
The hydrometer operates on Archimedes’ law, which states that a solid suspended in a fluid will be buoyed up by a force equivalent to the weight of the fluid displaced by the submerged portion of the suspended solid.  
Perimeter and Telemeter
The entire length of a shape’s border is
referred to as the perimeter in mathematics.  
A Telemeter is a device used to gauge an object’s separation from the viewer
A shape’s perimeter is calculated by combining
the lengths of all of its sides and borders.
Its dimensions are expressed in linear measures like millimeters, meters, inches, and feet.  
A range-finding tool, particularly for military objectives.  
Isotopes vs Isomer
Different atoms of the same element are called isotopes.Different compounds with the same molecular formula are isomers.
Isotopes vary from one another based on the quantity of neutrons.Isomers differ based on the configuration of the elements.
Chemistry General SCIENCE
Flying mammal and Bird
Flying mammal  Bird  
Flying mammals have wings or unique limbs that they use to fly or glide, but they still possess the essential characteristics of mammals.Birds have specialised wings for flying and do not possess mammal-like characteristics.
They have the ability to nurse their young with milk. They do not lay eggsBirds do not have the ability to nurse their young ones. Birds lay eggs and forage
Their bodies have hair or fur.Their bodies have feathers.
Flying mammals have jaw bones with teeth.Birds have beaks but no teeth.
Bats, Flying squirrels etcSparrows etc  
Vertebrates and Invertebrates
Invertebrates  Vertebrates  
Invertebrates can be defined as creatures without a backbone.Vertebrates, on the other hand, have highly evolved skeleton systems.
An open vascular system is present in almost all invertebrates.Closed vascular systems are present in all animals.
They incorporate bilateral or radial symmetry.There is bilateral bodily symmetry in all animals.
Invertebrates generally have complex eyes.Compound eyes are not found in vertebrates.
A simple nervous system is present in Invertebrates.  They have intricate, highly specialized organ systems that serve particular purposes.  
Invertebrates include organisms like flatworms, insects, arthropods, sponges, and sponges.  Vertebrates consist of creatures like birds, fish, lizards, frogs, and mammals.  

Question No. 9

(A) What are pesticides? Explain how these are dangerous to human beings?

Question Breakdown

In this question the examiner has asked about pesticides and their dangers. In order to fully answer this question, you have to define pesticides in your own words with examples and their usage based on classification. Then, to explain the dangers of pesticides to humans, you have to write the harmful effects and explain the severity as well. Maximum of five dangers in bullets are enough. Remember, writing too much can’t help you get good marks, but the presentation and clarity of question requirnment do.


An Overview of Pesticides
  • Define Pesticides

Pest: Harmful organism
Cide: To contro
Pest control agents are chemicals known as pesticides. Any organism that transmits illness, causes damage, or is otherwise harm is considered a pest.

  • ✤ Examples of Pesticides
    Mosquitoes, mice, and plants are a few types of parasites. However, insects are not always a pest
  • ✤ Types of Pesticides and Uses
    In a general sense, it refers to the following classes of chemicals:
  1. Herbicides eliminate or manage grasses and other undesirable plants. They are frequently applied to fields.
  2. Insecticides eliminate or regulate insects. They are utilized in homes, companies, industries, and agriculture.
  3. Fungicides can be applied to plants or other areas where mold or mildew grows to suppress fungi. They might also help to keep produce safe.
Dangers of Pesticides for Human Beings

The excessive use of pesticides can cause acute and chronic effects. These range in different severity levels

  1. Eyes that hurt, blisters, rashes, blindness, vertigo, lightheadedness, diarrhoea, and even mortality are examples of severe health consequences.
  1. Cancers, birth abnormalities, reproductive damage, immunotoxicity, neurological and developmental toxicity, and endocrine system disruption are a few examples of chronic impacts.
  1. Due to their growing organs, nervous systems, and immunological systems, children are more susceptible to pesticide pollution. They also have lower detoxification and excretion rates for chemicals. Exposure can permanently damage the early stages of growth.
  1. Endocrine disruptors present in pesticides imitate or obstruct hormones and  meddle with vital bodily processes. ( including metabolism, the sleep cycle and stress response).

(B) What do the following scientific abbreviations stand far?
(i)STP (ii) LORAN (iii) SONAR (iv) MAF  (v) MeV (vi) MASER (vii) AWACS (viii) CCTV

Question Breakdown

In this question you need to write the acronym of the given abbreviations. There is no need to stretch the answer with unnecessary details. Just answer what is exactly asked in that is the long form of these. Remember, in the GSA paper, no extra length of your questions will make you a high scorer. Thus, break the question down sagaciously and solve accordingly.


STP      Standard Temperature Pressure
LORAN  Long Range Navigation
SONAR  Sound Navigation And Ranging
MAF      Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry
MeV      MegaElectron Volt
MASER  Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
AWACS  Airborne Warning And Control System
CCTV     Closed Circuit Television

CSS Solved Past Papers’ Essays

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